Sunday, October 30, 2022

Part 4 DNA: Pirates of the Sacred Spiral ...Gene Environment Interaction

It is insanity with this wireless experiment, it is like living in a microwave oven with the atmosphere any more. This is like a mass suicide. We really should step back from this stuff while there is time. After reading this chapter, shouldn't we be seeing what is causing cancer more closely now. The gene connection is troubling for the species. Sorry for the length of the chapter.

Pirates of the Sacred Spiral 
By Dr. Len Horowitz
Chapter 5
Gene Environment Interaction

“There is harmony of the organism and a harmony in structure that allows the transfer of energy so that the organism can live and vibrate. So it can carry on its metabolism and its replication. Those harmonies and resonances must be perceived as inherently musical, because those harmonies recur and recreate the organism.

. . . Ultimately, there is a musical or harmonic element within the organism which can recreate the patterns of information and energy. This is beautiful and resurgent. This is molecular music, fragile, dependent, recurring under the right conditions, based in quantum echoes and hidden physics. ” 

In The Emperor’s New Clothes, his majesty the king paraded before everyone completely nude. In other words, he was royally exposed. Yet only one young man had the guts to declare the eccentric monarch naked. Is this an allegory for what is ongoing today regarding DNA? These authors feel much like this brave young renegade. We appreciate the whole truth about DNA, and herein expose those who stand naked as they work to co-opt and corrupt the Sacred Spiral’s power. 
Merrill Garnett, D.M.D., Ph.D., 
First Pulse: A Personal Journey 
in Cancer Research 

DNA plays a significant, likely Divine, role in precipitating, inspiring, and sustaining life bio acoustically and energetically. The double helix is a dual function receiver and transmitter for physical and spiritual empowerment. If the last chapter failed to persuade you of the legitimacy of this thesis, this chapter, packed with referenced scientific determinations, may be more convincing. 

Herein we present two genetic likelihoods, even realities: 1) there are global political and economic forces effectively working to suppress scientific knowledge while manipulating the mass mind in efforts to profit from general ignorance regarding the vital role DNA plays in the energetic (i.e., spiritual) functions of life, and 2) we are in great, even dire, need for a “reality check” regarding the “Sacred Spiral.” Its primary function supersedes mere protein synthesis. DNA directs electromagnetic (i.e., energetic) signaling from our environment, including the Divinely directed and balanced cosmos, through our cells and tissues. This enables every physical manifestation and physiological function, including the miracle of spontaneous natural, and/or spiritual regeneration (i.e., healing). 

Antagonistically, mainstream health authorities and genetic experts, such as those at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), argue that many, and maybe most, human diseases result from genetic susceptibilities or mutations in combination with modifiable environmental risks. These environmental factors addressed by world renowned sources of health intelligence include infectious, chemical, physical, nutritional, and behavioral risk factors. Virtually zero mention is ever made of bioacoustic, electromagnetic, energetic, or even more esoteric, “spiritual” disturbances of DNA in gene-related ailments. 

For example, according to an August 2000 report by the CDC entitled, “Gene-Environment Interaction Fact Sheet,” the newly formed, Office of Environment Interaction and Disease Prevention, gave nil indication electro genetics played an essential role in DNA expression. No mention at all that electromagnetic fields, including subtle ones coming from power lines and electrical appliances, influence genetic regulation of life. They simply provided partial truths which, all told, presented nearly complete lies. 

Spin doctors at the CDC stated that, “information from the Human Genome Project has caused scientists to reexamine the role of genetics and other risk factors involved in the development of disease. Understanding this complex interplay of genes and environment will lead us to new methods of disease detection and prevention. This is perhaps the most important fact in understanding the role of genetics and environment in the development of disease.” 

This is nothing new. The truth is, these subjects had been given quintessential scientific attention prior to the Human Genome Project. In fact, the entire project was originally directed to incorporate these scientific subjects. 

“Many people tend to classify the cause of disease as either genetic or environmental. Indeed, some rare diseases, such as Huntington or Tay Sachs disease, may be the result of a deficiency of a single gene product, but these diseases represent a very small proportion of all human disease,” The CDC more accurately continued, “Common diseases, such as diabetes or cancer, are a result of the complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors.” 

Addressing the physicochemical, yet avoiding electromagnetic or biospiritual, forces involved in the etiology of diseases, the CDC statement continued, “Variations in genetic makeup are associated with almost all disease. Even so-called single-gene disorders actually develop from the interaction of both genetic and environmental factors. For example, phenylketonuria (PKU) results from a genetic variant that leads to deficient metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine; in the presence of normal protein intake, phenylalanine accumulates and is neurotoxic. PKU occurs only when both the genetic variant (phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency) and the environmental exposure (dietary phenylalanine) are present. 

“Genetic variations do not cause disease but rather influence a person’s susceptibility to environmental factors.” 

Thus, health officials admitted, “We do not inherit a disease state per se. Instead, we inherit a set of susceptibility factors to certain effects of environmental factors and, therefore, inherit a higher risk for certain diseases.

“This concept also explains why individuals are differently affected by the same environmental factors. For example, some health conscious individuals with ‘acceptable’ cholesterol levels suffer myocardial infarction at age 40. Other individuals seem immune to heart disease in spite of smoking, poor diet, and obesity. Genetic variations account, at least in part, for this difference in response to the same environmental factors. 

“Genetic information can be used to target interventions. We all carry genetic variants that increase our susceptibility to some diseases. 

“By identifying and characterizing gene-environment interactions, we have more opportunities to effectively target intervention strategies. Many of the genetic risk factors for diseases have not been identified, and the complex interaction of genes with other genes, and genes with environmental factors, is not yet understood. Clinical and epidemiological studies are necessary to further describe these factors and their interactions. However, as our understanding of genetic variations increases, so should our knowledge of environmental factors, so that ultimately, genetic information can be used to plan appropriate intervention strategies for high-risk individuals.”(CDC, 2001) 

Introduction to the Electrical Properties of Cells 
As Dr. Steve Haltiwanger correctly noted in his previous publications on the electromagnetics of cancer, the above jargon concerning the need to study genetic and environmental interactions, and related biological reactions, began 100 years ago in the Western world. By the early 1900s, this limited view became the prevailing, and really exclusive, paradigm used to explain cellular functions and disease progression. The pharmaceutical and cancer industries subsequently became very successful using this model in developing their profit centers, all with potentially devastating side effects on individuals, society at large, and civilization as a whole. As medicine became transformed into  a huge business (i.e., mega-monopoly) during the 20th century, medical treatments became largely based on this knowledge and profit incentive. At this time, the supremacy of the biochemical mechanistic paradigm as applied to genetics caused almost all research in genetics and medical science to be directed toward understanding mechanisms that may be influenced by patentable drugs and vaccines. 

Many biological questions, however, can only be partially answered with biochemical explanations. More fruitful determinations and reconciliations of otherwise persistent questions have come by examining the role of endogenously created electromagnetic fields and electrical currents in the body.(Haltiwanger, 2003) 

Albert Szent-Gyorgyi in his book Bioelectronics voiced his concern about some of the open questions in biology: “No doubt, molecular biochemistry has harvested the greatest success and has given a solid foundation to biology. However, there are indications that it has overlooked major problems, if not a whole dimension, for some of the existing questions remain unanswered, if not unasked.” (Szent-Gyorgyi, 1968) Szent-Gyorgyi reported that the cells of the body possess electrical mechanisms and use electricity to regulate and control the transduction of chemical energy and other life processes. 

In his 1970 book, Electromagnetic fields and Life, Dr. Aleksander Samuilovich Presman, identified several significant effects of the interaction of electromagnetic fields with living organisms. Electromagnetic fields: 1) have information and communication roles in that they are employed by living organisms as information conveyors. This electromagnetic information flows from the environment to the organism, within the organism, and among organisms, and 2) such energies are involved in life’s vital processes in that they facilitate pattern formation, physical organization, and growth control within the organism.(Presman, 1970)

If living organisms possess the ability to utilize electromagnetic fields and electricity there must exist physical structures within the cells that facilitate the sensing, transducing, storing, and transmitting of this form of energy. DNA plays a major role in all of the above.(Miller, et. al., 2002) 

Normal cells possess the ability to communicate information within themselves and to other cells. The coordination of information by the cells of the body is involved in the regulation and integration of cellular functions, cell growth, tissue responses and whole organ reactions. Moreover, when pathology strikes, it is apparent, given most recent revelations in molecular biology and electrochemistry, these coordinated information channels are disrupted.(Haltiwanger, 2003) 

Throughout the next few chapters we will use examples from the realm of cancer to illustrate and reinforce certain points. We do not do this solely because of the intimate relationship between genetic dysfunction and cancer. Nor do we do this because “gene therapy,” according to its proponents, offers salvation through modern medicine along with the “cancer answer.” Our use of examples from the cancer world is not because the forces we call “Pirates of the Sacred Spiral” also control the cancer industry. Alternatively, as cancer is now predicted to strike one-out-of-two people in the coming years, perhaps it is time to tell all that we know about it free of censorship or institutionalized bias. 

Using cancer as an example, cancer cells cease to be regulated by normal bioelectric control mechanisms. 

When an injury occurs in the body, normal cells proliferate and either replace the destroyed and damaged cells with new cells or scar tissue. One characteristic feature of both proliferating cells and cancer cells is that these cells have cell membrane potentials that are lower than the cell membrane potential of healthy adult cells.(Cone, 1975) 

After the repair is completed, and the normal cells in the area of injury stop growing, cell membrane potentials return to normal. Likewise, in cancerous tissue, the electrical potential  of cell membranes is maintained at a lower level, and electrical connections are disrupted. Emphasis is placed here due to the important implications of this knowledge on understanding cancer, the carcinogenic (inadequate) immune response, and cancer therapies all to be discussed later. 

Cancerous cells also possess other features that are different from normal proliferating cells. Normal cells are well organized in their growth, form strong contacts with their neighbors, and stop growing at the right time. When they repair an injured area (due to contact inhibition with other cells) they stop growing. In contrast to normal cells, cancer cells are more easily detached and fail to exhibit contact inhibition of their growth. Cancer cells become estranged from normal tissue. They become bioelectrically and biochemically self-sustaining. Tissue and intercellular signaling is diminished. Growth control mechanisms fall away. In a sense, cancer cells become out-of-sync from the rest of the body. 

This chapter focuses on some of these gene-environmental interactions and abnormalities that have been identified especially in cancer cells that contribute to pathology and loss of growth control. 

DNA in an Electrical Circuit 
Your television is graphically animated as an electrical box because it receives energy signals through thin air. Likewise, we have come to the conclusion that your liquid crystal components, within your cells and extracellular matrix of your body, possess many of the features of televisions, computers, and electronic circuits. Components analogous to conductors, semiconductors, resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductor coils, transducers, switches, generators and batteries exist in you and in all biological tissues. 

Examples of components that allow your cells to function as a solid-state electronic device include: transducers (membrane receptors), inductors (membrane receptors and DNA), capacitors (cell and organelle membranes), resonators (membranes and DNA), tuning circuits (membrane-protein complexes), and semiconductors (liquid crystal protein polymers). 

Begging your pardon for a momentary diversion and point of-clarification, this information is understandably complex. Especially if you are an average lay reader instead of an electrical engineer. We will, however, make every effort to simplify forthcoming discussions where we can to make this scientific knowledge generally intelligible. 

Many of these energetic processes occur simultaneously. So in grouping information into specific areas, we present information repeatedly, knowing that “repetition is the mother of memory and habit.” We, thus, hope to enable you to easily commit these truths to heart and mind. Especially the major hypothesis of this book that diseased or cancer cells are in “spiritual crisis.” That is, they have different electrical and metabolic properties impacting DNA’s bioelectric expression. The recognition that diseased and cancer cells have different electrical properties leads to our hypothesis in Chapter 12 that therapies that address these electrical abnormalities may have some, and likely superior, therapeutic value. 

Charge Carriers and Electrical Properties of Cells 
In order to help orient you to this emerging field of electro genetics and energy medicine, this section summarizes the basic characteristics of energy systems, including cells and intercellular structures comprising whole organisms. 

To begin, it is widely recognized that cells of the body are composed of matter. Matter itself is composed of atoms, which are mixtures of negatively charged electrons, positively charged protons, and electrically neutral neutrons. These are the main components engaged in atomic energy transfer. 

Electrical charges (i.e., forces of energy) come into play potentially affecting every part of you (as in the case of radiation-induced genetic mutations leading to cancer and premature demise). This can happen when an electron is forced out of its orbit around the nucleus of an atom. Indeed, the electron’s action is known as electricity. 

Basic physics and electrodynamics holds that an electron, an atom, or a material with an excess of electrons, has a negative charge. An atom or a substance with a deficiency of electrons has a positive charge. 

Like Charges Repel/Unlike Charges Attract 
Electrical or energetic potentials are created in biological structures when charges are separated. This is important because electrical potentials possess the capacity to do work. 

Although energy industrialists, for their sole fiscal benefit, have formed an alternative consensus, electric fields such as those emitted by power lines, cellphone towers, and home appliances including television, can have profound biological effects. Cumulative damage may result from subtle chronic exposures. Such electric fields form around any electric charge, according to numerous authorities, including those within your cells.(Becker, 1985). 

The potential difference between two points produces an electric field represented by electric lines of flux. The negative pole always has more electrons than the positive pole. 

Electricity is simply defined as the flow of mobile charge carriers in a conductor, or a semiconductor, from areas of high charge to areas of low charge driven by the electrical force. Any machinery, whether mechanical or biological, that possesses the ability to harness this electrical force has the ability to do work. 

Voltage, also called the potential difference or electromotive force is based on the understanding that an electrical current will only flow when it gets a push. When two areas of different charge are connected, whether at the ends of two wires or two cell membranes, a current will flow in an attempt to equalize the charge  difference. The difference in potential between two points gives rise to a voltage, which causes charge carriers to move and current to flow between the two connected points. This force causes motion of current carriers and work to be done. 

A current is the rate of flow of charge carriers in a substance past a point. The unit of current measure is called the ampere. In inorganic materials electrons carry the current. In biological tissues both mobile ions and electrons carry currents. 

In order to make electrical currents flow, a potential difference must exist. The excess electrons on the negatively charged material will be pulled toward the positively charged material. 

As shown in figure 5.3, a flowing electric current always produces an expanding magnetic field with lines of force at a 90-degree angle to the direction of current flow. When a current increases or decreases, the magnetic field strength increases or decreases the same way. 

More About Your Electrical Components 
In electrical terms, a conductor is a material in which the electrons are mobile. Alternatively, an insulator is a material that has very few free electrons. A semiconductor is a material that has properties of both insulators and conductors. In general, semiconductors conduct electricity in one direction better than they will in the other direction. Semiconductors function as conductors or as insulators depending on the direction the current is flowing. 

No material, whether biological or non-biological, will perfectly conduct electricity. All materials will resist the flow of an electric charge through it, causing a dissipation of energy as heat. This block in free energy flow is called resistance. It is measured in ohms, according to Ohm’s law. In simple DC circuits, resistance equals impedance. 

Impedance denotes the relation between the voltage and the current in a component or system. Impedance is usually described “as the opposition to the flow of an alternating electric current through a conductor. However, impedance is a broader concept that includes the phase shift between the voltage and the current.”(Ivorra, 2002) 

Inductance involves the expansion or contraction of a magnetic field. This varies as the current varies and causes an electromotive force of self-induction, which opposes any further change in the current. Coils have greater inductance than straight conductors so in electronic terms coils are called inductors. When a conductor is coiled (as with a Tesla coil or DNA helix), the magnetic field produced by current flow expands across adjacent coil turns. When a current changes, the induced magnetic field that is created also changes and creates a force called the counter emf. This opposes additional changes in the current. 

This effect does not occur in static conditions in DC circuits when the current is steady. The counter emf effect only arises in a DC circuit when the current experiences a change in value. When current flow in a DC circuit rapidly falls, the magnetic field also rapidly collapses and has the capability of generating a high induced emf that at times can be many times the original source voltage. Higher induced voltages may be created in an inductive circuit by increasing the speed of current changes and increasing the number of coils. 

In alternating current (AC) circuits the current is continuously changing so that the induced emf will affect current flow at all times. 

DNA activities are intimately connected to these seemingly off topic electrical functions. DNA and a number of membrane proteins consist of helical coils which may allow them to electronically function as inductor coils. Also some research indicates that biological tissues may possess superconducting properties. If certain membrane proteins and your DNA actually function as electrical inductors, they may enable your cell to transiently produce very high electrical voltages. 

Capacitance is the ability to accumulate and store charge from a circuit and later give it back to a circuit. In DC circuits, capacitance opposes any change in circuit voltage. In a simple DC circuit, current flow stops when a capacitor becomes charged. In biological systems, capacitance is defined by the measure of the quantity of charge that has to be moved across the membrane to produce a unit change in membrane potential. 

Functioning in this regard are capacitors. In electrical equipment, these are composed of two plates of conducting metals that sandwich an insulating material. Energy is taken from a circuit to supply and store charge on the plates. Energy is returned to the circuit when the charge is removed. The area of the plates, the amount of plate separation, and the type of dielectric material used all affect the capacitance. 

Dielectric characteristics occur in some materials that include both conductive and capacitive properties.(Reilly, 1998) In cells, the cell membrane is a leaky dielectric. This means that any condition, illness, or change in dietary intake that affects the composition of the cell membranes and their associated minerals can affect and alter cellular capacitance. 

Inductors in electronic equipment exist in series and in parallel with other inductors as well as with resistors and capacitors. Resistors slow down the rate of conductance by brute force. Inductors impede the flow of electrical charges by temporarily storing energy as a magnetic field that gives back the energy later. Capacitors impede the flow of electric current by storing the energy as an electric field. Capacitance becomes an important electrical property in AC circuits and pulsating DC circuits. The tissues of the body contain pulsating DC circuits and AC electric fields.(Becker and Selden, 1985; Liboff, 1997) 

Hydrogen Bonds and Energy Transfer 
DNA gains much of its power from pyramids of nano-structured water molecules—the liquid from which all life was formed  according to the Book of Genesis. For this important reason, this section provides required technicalities for more in-depth understanding of DNA’s electrical properties. 

In the 1930s Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling argued that the weak “hydrogen” bonds in water partially get their identity from stronger “covalent” bonds in the H2 O molecule. As Pauling correctly surmised, this property is a manifestation of the fact that electrons in water obey the bizarre laws of quantum mechanics—the modern theory of matter and energy at the atomic level. Performed by researchers at Bell Labs Lucent Technologies in the US, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in France, and the National Research Council of Canada, one experiment provided important new details on water’s microscopic properties, which surprisingly remain largely hidden and difficult to measure. These new details allow researchers to improve predictions involving water and hydrogen bonds, and also integrate seemingly diverse areas such as nanotechnology and superconductors. 

As reported by The National Institute of Physics, “One of the most important components of life as we know it is the hydrogen bond. . . . In water, there are two types of bonds. Hydrogen bonds are the bonds between water molecules, while the much stronger “sigma” bonds are the bonds within a single water molecule. Sigma bonds are strongly “covalent,” meaning that a pair of electrons is shared between atoms. Covalent bonds can only be described by quantum mechanics. In a covalent bond, each electron does not really belong to a single atom—it belongs to both simultaneously, and helps to fill each atom’s outer “valence” shell, a situation which makes the bond very stable. 

“Hydrogen bonds are electrostatic by nature. The much weaker hydrogen bonds that exist between H2O molecules are principally the electrical attractions between a positively charged hydrogen atom which readily gives up its electron in water and a negatively charged oxygen atom—which receives these electrons—in a neighboring molecule. These “electrostatic interactions” can be explained perfectly by classical, pre-20th century physics. Specifically by Coulomb’s law, named after the French engineer Charles Coulomb, who formulated the law in the 18th century to describe the attraction and repulsion between charged particles separated from each other by a distance. . . . 

“How do hydrogen bonds obtain their double identity? The answer lies with the electrons in the hydrogen bonds. Electrons, like all other objects in nature, naturally seek their lowest-energy state. To do this, they minimize their total energy, which includes their energy of motion (i.e., kinetic energy). Lowering an electron’s kinetic energy means reducing its velocity. A reduced velocity also means a reduced momentum. And whenever an object reduces its momentum, it must spread out in space, according to a quantum mechanical phenomenon known as the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. In fact, this “delocalization” effect occurs for electrons in many other situations, not just in hydrogen bonds. Delocalization plays an important role in determining the behavior of superconductors and other electrically conducting materials at sufficiently low temperatures.[Emphasis added.] 

“Implicit in this quantum mechanical picture is that all objects—even the most solid particles—can act like rippling waves under the right circumstances. These circumstances exist in the water molecule, and the electron waves on the sigma and hydrogen bonding sites overlap somewhat. Therefore, these electrons become somewhat indistinguishable and the hydrogen bonds cannot be completely described as electrostatic bonds. Instead, they take on some of the properties of the highly covalent sigma bonds—and vice versa. However, the extent to which hydrogen bonds were being affected by the sigma bonds has remained controversial and has never been directly tested by experiment—until now.

“Working at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France, a US-France-Canada research team designed an experiment that would settle this issue once and for all. Taking advantage of the ultra-intense x-rays that could be produced at the facility, they studied the “Compton scattering” that occurred when the x-ray photons ricocheted from ordinary ice. [Authors’ note: This new experiment provided unambiguous evidence.] 

“Named after physicist Arthur Holly Compton, who won the Nobel Prize in 1927 for its discovery, Compton scattering occurs when a photon (i.e., tiny burst of light energy) impinges upon a material containing electrons. The photon transfers some of its kinetic energy to the electrons, and emerges from the material with a different direction and lower energy. 

“By measuring the energy lost by a photon and its direction as it scatters from a solid, one can determine the momentum it transfers to the electrons in a molecule—and learn about the original momentum state of the electron itself. From this information, one can reconstruct the electron’s ground-state wave function—the complete quantum-mechanical description of an electron in a hydrogen bond in its lowest-energy state. 

“The effect that the experimenters were looking for—the overlapping of the electron waves in the sigma and hydrogen bonding sites—was a very subtle one to detect. . . . The researchers decided to study solid ice, in which the hydrogen bonds are pointing in only four different directions because the H2O molecules are frozen in a regularly repeating pattern. Still, the effect was expected to be fairly small—only a tenth of all the electrons in ice are associated with the hydrogen bond or sigma bond. . . . What also complicates matters is that Compton scattering records information on the contributions from all the electrons in ice, not just the ones in which the researchers were interested. 

“[The results of the experiment showed wavelike energies flowed] between electrons in water. Taking the differences in scattering intensity into account, and plotting the intensity of the scattered x-rays against their momentum, the team recorded wavelike fringes corresponding to interference between the electrons on neighboring sigma and hydrogen bonding sites. The presence of these fringes demonstrates that electrons in the hydrogen bond are quantum mechanically shared—covalent—just as Linus Pauling had predicted. . . . 

“[The implications of this experiment are fascinating.] For many years, many scientists dismissed the possibility that hydrogen bonds in water had significant covalent properties. This fact can no longer be dismissed. The experiment provides highly coveted details on water’s microscopic properties. Not only will it allow researchers in many areas to improve theories of water and the many biological structures such as DNA which possess hydrogen bonds, improved information on the h-bond may also help us to assume better control of our material world. For example, it may allow nanotechnologists to design more advanced self-assembling materials, many of which rely heavily on hydrogen bonds to put themselves together properly. [Authors’ note: This sentence is emphasized because of the reference to self-assembly mechanisms in nanotechnology-related circuits and systems including DNA. This vitally important subject is covered in chapter 12 in relation to electrogenetics and bioholography.] Meanwhile, researchers are hoping to apply their experimental technique to study numerous hydrogen-bond-free materials, such as superconductors and switchable metal-insulator devices, in which one can control the amount of quantum overlap between electrons in neighboring atomic sites.”(Isaacs and Skukla, et. al, 1999)[Emphasis added.] 

Oxidation/Reduction Reactions and DNA 
Oxidation/reduction reactions are fundamental considerations in the realm of bioenergetic systems. Did you know that even drugs depend on the motion of energy-carrying electrons to impart their pharmacological influences? This section addresses this important subject as it relates to DNA. 

According to widely renowned cancer investigator Dr. Merrill Garnett, molecules hold and store electrical current at particular voltages. “Or there may be a smooth rise in the current being held until it reaches a certain voltage point and then the current will descend. These are what we refer to as the voltage peaks. This has to do with the atomic configuration and the electrons that are added in particular ranges and the characteristics of that molecule.”(Garnett, 2001) 

Helping to explain this electrical phenomenon as it involves oxidation and reduction, along with the role played by DNA in these energetic processes, Dr. Garnett relayed this experiment and explanation in describing his quest for a cancer cure: 

Let’s say you scan from zero to minus one volt. Voltage has a convention that’s different than current. The signs are reversed. So increasing the number of electrons in voltage is what we call reducing. It has more negative potential. So you scan toward more negative potential, toward more reducing force in which the instrument loads the molecule with electrical current. And after the instrument gets to minus a volt and you start decreasing the voltage, so you’re now oxidizing, or pulling electrons back. . . . You also have a reverse, or anodic peak, an upside down hill. These wave forms are the molecule’s electronic signature. 

If you take the average point between those two peaks, which is called a standard potential, it represents the behavior of that atom under those parameters: the scan speed, the drop size of the electrode, the particular electrolyte at a particular pH. You set up a standard system so you can look at a molecule in a particular way, electronically, which is representative of its electrical behavior; its reduction and oxidation in that particular voltage range. So now you can add another substance to it, one that doesn’t read in that range. Let’s say we add DNA, which doesn’t read in the minus voltage range, so that any electrical influence on that substance will be read purely by the change in the molecular signature.

If the additional substance changes the electrical character in a range in which that substance doesn’t read, you set about deciding how the new substance did that. In what direction it changed its electrical character. Did it add electrons to it or did it take them away. If the reduction hill shrinks, you’ve lost electrical charge. The area under the reducing curve encloses a space, an integral, which describes the capacitance of the molecule. As that capacitance drops, that charge is lost to the material you’ve added. So now you see that the charge has gone from the drug being studied to the DNA. That means that the drug has been oxidized or has lost charge, and the DNA has been reduced or has gained charge. 

The rate at which the hill disappears is of great importance. For example, if we run a scan over and over, the number of scans it takes for the reducing hill to disappear is the interval necessary to get rid of the charge. So if it happens right away you have a rapid effective reaction. . . . So the more rapidly and efficiently one could transfer electron charge to DNA, the more effective was the potency against cancer in the [drug] screen[ing]. The major event occurred on the electrochemistry instrument. I got a beautiful tracing, because when I challenged DNA in 15 cyclic passes most of the signal disappeared and transferred to the DNA. That was the most important signal I ever observed. . . .”[Emphasis added](Garnett, 2001)

Chromosomes and Nucleosomes: Helical Energy Coils 
Additionally, Dr. Garnett explained DNA’s electrodynamics this way: 

In the Chromosome, structures called Nucleosomes, which are DNA coiled around histone proteins, exist by the billions. They are found all through the Chromosomes. This is exciting because the Nucleosome is characteristically a stabilizing presence. As a coil, it has electronic inductance, and since we have a series of coils, we have a series inductance circuit. DNA current passes initially through the helix in a state where it can discharge its field energy. Hence, we have a pulse within the DNA interacting with other biomolecules like the membrane. The pulse can go in and come out, and the DNA is not imperiled. This proves an interesting model for the biological pulse.(Garnett, 2000)

Electrical and Electromagnetic Properties of Cells 
If the preceding information has yet to convince you that everything in life operates energetically, the following technical information may compel you to appreciate the electrical and electromagnetic field (EMF) dynamics associated with the genetic regulation of biological systems. If you are an intelligent lay reader, you are encouraged to join the more technically minded in integrating this little-known information as it pertains to the central mission of this book. That is, to generate greater public appreciation for the full spiritual (i.e., electromagnetic and bioacoustic) domains of DNA operations, including the many electrical mechanisms involved in genetic control of life, yours included.

Topics introduced in the following pages include: 1) electro-energy dependent cell membrane receptors for hormones, growth factors, cytokines, and neurotransmitters. These can lead to alteration/initiation of membrane regulation of intra and intercellular processes; 2) electrochemically-induced alteration of mineral entry through the cell membranes; 3) activation or inhibition of cytoplasmic enzyme reactions; 4) increasing the electrical potential and capacitance of cell membranes; 5) changes in dipole orientation; 6) activation of the DNA helix leading to increased reading and transcription of codons and increased protein synthesis; and 7) activation of DNA and cell membrane receptors that act like antennas for certain windows of frequency and amplitude leading to the concepts of electromagnetic reception, transduction, and attunement.

As we have mentioned, there are multiple structures in cells that act as electronic components. If biological tissues and cellular and extracellular components can receive, transduce, and transmit electric, acoustic, magnetic, mechanical, and thermal vibrations then this may help explain the phenomena listed in Table 5.1. 

Table 5.1. 
Biological Phenomena Associated with Electromagnetic and Bioacoustic Mechanisms 
1. Biological reactions to atmospheric electromagnetic and ionic disturbance (sunspots, thunder storms, and earthquakes). 
2. Biological reactions to the earth’s geomagnetic and Schumann fields. 
3. Biological reactions to hands-on healing. 
4. Biological responses to machines that produce electric, magnetic, photonic and acoustical vibrations (i.e., frequency generators). 
5. Medical devices that detect, analyze and alter biological electromagnetic fields (i.e., biofields). 
6. Efficacy of techniques such as acupuncture, moxibustion, and laser (photonic) acupuncture can result in healing effects and movement of “Chi” (i.e., life force). 
7. Possibly how body work such as deep tissue massage, rolfing, physical therapy, and chiropractic can promote healing. 
8. Holographic communication. 
9. How neural therapy works. 
10. How electrodermal screening works. 
11. How some individuals have the capability of feeling, interpreting, and correcting alterations in another individual’s biofield. 
12. How weak EMFs have biological importance.

A fundamental property of all matter is that it vibrates with each atom and molecule vibrating at a characteristic frequency. All of the molecules of your body and their chemical bonds are constantly vibrating at a specific rate, which endows these components with the ability to both emit and absorb through resonance electromagnetic and sound energy.

These vibrations also manifest structurally. That is, your frequency vibrations heavily influence your material structure. The Sacred Spiral structure of DNA in this regard, associated with the Golden Mean as shown in figure 5.6, may be likened to a standing energy wave. 

According to quantum theory, an entity, whether it is an atom or a molecule, simultaneously possesses both localized (particle) and distributed (wave) properties. 

When two waves come together they interact with each other producing an interference pattern, a pattern capable of holding information as shown in figure 5.6. Information is processed and cell structures are organized by these forces including the structure and standing waves created by DNA, as well as the energy fields produced by resonating protein filaments and microtubules in cytoplasm. 

Weak Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) 
with Strong Biological Effects 
In order to understand how weak EMFs have biological effects, it is important to understand certain basic concepts. These have been minimally recognized because of certain scientific assumptions that have proven shortsighted, or downright wrong, in recent years. Many of these assumptions have been based on the thermal paradigm and the ionizing paradigm. These paradigms are based on beliefs that an EMF’s effect on biological tissue is primarily thermal or ionizing. There is much more involved than this. 

Electric fields need to be measured not just as strong or weak, but also as low carriers or high carriers of information. This is because electric fields, conventionally defined as thermally strong, may be low in biological information content. Alternatively, electric fields conventionally considered as thermally weak or nonionizing may be high in biological information if the proper receiving equipment exists in biological tissues. 

Weak electromagnetic fields are: bioenergetic, bioinformational, non ionizing, non-thermal, and are now known to produce measurable biological effects. Contrary to official pronouncements, such as those made by energy industrialists and government oversight agencies that fall largely under economic and political controls, weak electromagnetic fields have effects on organisms, tissues, and cells. These effects can be highly frequency specific. This makes sense if you consider biological systems are based on laws of mathematics and physics wherein certain frequency, harmonics, and resonance rules are established. This mathematical or numerological influence over life, if you will, also explains the nonlinear dose response curve demonstrated in biological systems following exposure to various EMFs and energy frequencies. Because the effects of weak electromagnetic fields are nonlinear, fields in the proper frequency and amplitude windows may produce large effects, which may be beneficial or harmful. 

This frequency dependent dynamic of life includes “the powers of the 3s, 6s and 9s,” described by Nicola Tesla and John Keely while referring to the metaphysical and biological influence of Pythagorean mathematics.(Horowitz and Puleo, 1999) Those precise Hertz frequencies exposures that resolve into these single digit integers (i.e., 3, 6, or 9, including time exposure measures) may be strong cofactors in determining physical outcomes. 

Homeopathy, and the success of homeopathic medicines, is another example of using weak fields with beneficial electromagnetic effects. 

Other examples of thermally weak, but high informational content fields of the right frequency range are visible light and the healing touch. The former is used to cure neonatal jaundice. The latter has been successfully used since biblical times to heal all sorts of injuries and pathologies.

As you will learn more in the pages ahead, biological tissues have electronic components that can receive, transduce, and transmit weak electronic signals. Organisms use these weak electromagnetic fields, bioelectric currents, and photonic energies to synchronize biological operations and communicate virtually instantaneously with all parts of themselves. 

Other related bioenergetic errata includes the fact that electric fields can relay information through frequency and amplitude fluctuations; that biological organisms demonstrate characteristics of energetic holograms; that healthy organisms have coherent biofields and sick organisms have field disruptions and chaotic signals or signal interruptions; and that measures to correct field disruptions and improve field integration such as acupuncture; neural therapy, and resonant repatterning therapies have been shown to promote health. 

The Electrical Roles of Membranes and Mitochondria 
Electricity in your body comes from the food that you eat and the air you breathe.(Brown, 1999) Cells derive their energy from enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions which involve the oxidation of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. Cells can produce energy by oxygen-dependent aerobic enzyme pathways and by less efficient fermentation pathways.(Haltiwanger, 2002) 

The specialized proteins and enzymes involved in oxidative phosphorylation are located on the inner mitochondrial membrane and form a molecular respiratory chain or wire. This molecular wire (electron transport chain) passes electrons donated by several important electron donors through a series of intermediate compounds to molecular oxygen, which becomes reduced to water. In the process, lower energy ADP is converted into higher energy ATP. 

When the electron donors of the respiratory chain NADH and FADH2 release their electrons, hydrogen ions are also released. 

These positively charged hydrogen ions are pumped out of the mitochondrial matrix across the inner mitochondrial membrane creating an electrochemical gradient. At the last stage of the respiratory chain these hydrogen ions are allowed to flow back across the inner mitochondrial membrane and they drive a molecular motor called ATP synthase in the creation of ATP, much like water drives a water wheel. (Stipanuk, 2000; See figure 5.7.) This normal energy production process utilizing electron transport and hydrogen ion gradients across the mitochondrial membrane is disrupted in various illnesses, and especially when cells become cancerous.(Haltiwanger, 2002) 

Enzymes: Electrical Switches for DNA 
At this juncture, we will define the important role of enzymes more clearly. Enzymes are catalytic molecules that start and stop metabolic reactions occurring within cells. For this reason they are central to cellular energy and electrical processes. 

Typically, proteins and metallo-organic molecules exert enzymatic effects. Their special importance was beautifully described by Dr. Merrill Garnett a cancer researcher who labored to discover “mystery” enzymes associated with regulating the expression of DNA and its specific genes. He became particularly interested in identifying enzymes responsible for triggering healthy aerobic cell development. 

According to Dr. Garnett, “As you grow older, you become a different creature. We can only study the individual reactions which are definable and clear, but in the cell we have a concert being played. It has a prelude in the baby and the small child, then an overture in the adolescent, then the recurring themes of the mature adult and finally the old all because of the mystery developmental enzymes. Now I’m not saying that the enzymes are producing anything different as time passes, but that enzymes turn on and off. A new enzyme comes on the state. There are new players as the drama unfolds. It’s gene expression, and what we bring here to genetics is the suggestion that the developmental reactions rely heavily on energy.” Dr. Garnett christened the term electro genetics to best describe this process.(Garnett, 1998; 2001) 

“There are three types of enzymes and gene site reactions which allow the electrical polarization” of cells, according to Dr. Garnett. “These groups are called: 1. The oxygen vehicle system, which is the indirect effect of Carbonic anhydrase; 2. The electron transfer system which we call nucleotide reductases, and 3. Prolyl hydroxylase which allows the outward current. . . . The nucleotide reductase exists to actually make DNA.” And following the production of DNA, this enzyme also serves in continuing to reduce (i.e., add electrons to) DNA for its electrical and metabolic expression.(Garnett, 1998; 2001) 

Carbonic anhydrase was thought, by Dr. Garnett and others, to be “the first developmental enzyme.” It lowers intracellular gaseous carbon dioxide and facilitates oxygen uptake by cells. “Oxygen of course is a great electron carrier. So one begins to talk about electron transfer and oxygen radicals shortly after we allow oxygen to come into the cell. 

“The next stage, DNA reductase, is an electron transport reaction which is naturally influenced by the presence of oxygen. The availability of electrons to it is greater in the presence of oxygen.”(Garnett, 1998; 2001) 

The connective tissue protein collagen is formed by the third developmental enzyme, prolyl hydroxylase. It forms collagen by putting a hydroxyl radical on to the pro collagen molecule. Thus, the “transfer of oxygen radical species to procollagen was a simple experimental model,” used by Dr. Garnett, “which bore out very well” in the science of electrochemistry. 

Dr. Garnett summarized his important determinations thusly: 

So we now had two parts of the inward current; the admission of oxygen and the transfer of electrons. And we had one part of the outward current; the transfer of hydroxyl. What we had was three reactions that describe development; admission of oxygen, the transfer of electrons, and the outward transfer of hydroxyls. They are all compatible and interrelated. You can’t make a hydroxyl without oxygen or without electrons or their water products. So far these three are the lead developmental enzymes of electrogenetics. 

During his enzyme experiments, Dr. Garnett and colleagues attempted to treat cancer cells based on simultaneously treating tumors with “opposite charges.” They realized that if you enzymatically “transfer electrons and protons at the same time,” (i.e., moving neutral hydrogen atoms) you can eliminate the fever response during chemotherapy.(Garnett, 1998; 2001) 

Quantum Mechanics and Complex Electron Dynamics 
The following summary of biophysics was published by Miller et. al., in 2002. Their exceptional work applying this knowledge to the field of electro genetics and “bio-holography” is detailed in the final chapter of this book. The information that follows is reprinted with the lead author’s permission: 

“Particles found in biological processes include photons, electrons, protons, elementary ions, inorganic radicals, organic radicals, molecules, and molecular aggregates. . . . 

“Photons act upon electrons by raising their energy state. This process is called excitation. Excited electrons can drop back to more stable energy levels and emit photons [of light energy]. Electron excitations can lead to the formation of electrical bonds between molecules. These represent the traditional bonds of classical chemistry. The breaking of such bonds can, by reverse process, lead to the excitation of electrons. 

“In living systems the excitation of electrons by photons, and the subsequent conversion of that excitation into the bond energy, is called photosynthesis. This is the basic builder of biological structures. 

“The reversal of this process is called bioluminescence. During this process, energy is transferred from a molecular bond to an excited electron. This results in the emission of a light energy photon. In 1957, Szent-Gyorgyi suggested that the energetics of living creatures could be best understood in terms of photosynthesis and its reversal, bioluminescence. 

“As mentioned previously, all cellular processes are driven by energy derived from the breaking of chemical bonds and the excitation of electrons. Depending upon the particular environment and circumstances, the excitation of electron energy can be converted in one of three ways: (1) conversion into heat and dissipation (2) translation of molecules or ions through the cell, or (3) transformation of the molecules’ geometric form which can, and most often does, profoundly influence biomolecular activity and/or reactivity. 

“The formation of a certain type of chemical bond known as the resonance bond (most easily seen with the benzene molecule) leads to a peculiar situation in which certain electrons are freed from a local, or particular, location in the molecule. These are then free to travel around the entire molecule. This means that the electrons occupy an energy shell of the whole molecule as opposed to any particular atom in the molecule. The existence of molecular systems with mobile electrons has been found to be of profound significance in the manifestation, or precipitation, of life.” This will be discussed in great detail in Chapter 12 wherein consideration is given to works by the Russian investigator, Gariaev (1994; 1995), and a more recent publication by Miller, et. al., (2002). 

“Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which compose 99 percent of all living systems, are among the atoms in the periodic table which form the multiple bonds most easily leading to mobile electrons. Sulphur and phosphorus, which are extremely important for life processes, also form such multiple bonds quite easily. 

“All the essential biochemical substances, which perform the fundamental functions of living matter, are composed completely or partially of such mobile electrons. Molecules which contain these electrons are known as conjugated systems.(Pullman and Pullman, 1963). The essential fluidity of life may correspond with the fluidity of the electronic cloud in conjugated molecules. Such systems may best be considered as both the cradle and the main backbone of life. 

“Conjugate bonded molecules may interact in a variety of ways. Among these types of interaction can be found the interpenetration of electron orbitals which permits an electromagnetic coupling between molecules. This coupling can permit activated electron energy to pass from one molecule to another in the same way a radio can transmit a message to a radio receiver. There is also the possibility of the transfer of an entire electron which is known as charge transfer. 

“It is possible for a molecular complex to contain several electrically-charged radicals at different positions on the main molecule, each of which are conjugated. If these are in close enough proximity, or can be brought into proximity by changes in the structural configuration of the molecule, a charge can pass between these two groups. . . . It has been suggested by SzentGyorgyi (1968) that the sugars and phosphates that make up the side of the alpha helix of DNA can permit the passage of electrons. Thus, your human genome functions as a conductor of energy. 

“Biological energy conduction systems operate primarily as amorphous semiconductors as opposed to resembling metallic conductors. These do not have sharply defined energy bands in which electrons may flow, as opposed to other bands in which they are bound rigidly.

“According to McGinness (1972), there is a spread, or  bell curve, in which the points, or tails, are bound more closely to a particular molecule. The hump of the bell curve represents a conducting band that permits electrons to flow across the surface of a particular molecule or between molecules. This means, in essence, that protein molecules that are composed of amino acid sequences may act as organic circuits. The amino acids each have a donor group and an acceptor group on opposing ends. This means that a string or series of amino acids could pass a charge along as if it were being passed along a series of spines sticking up from the main body of the molecule. 

“Different pathways could arise along the surface of a protein molecule by amino acid radicals projecting out from the surface of their protein. The shape of protein molecules is a function of the energetic state of the molecules. This is influenced bio-acoustically and electromagnetically as will be discussed later. At this juncture, it is sufficient to know that charges, and the conjugate systems on the radicals that make up the protein, influence molecular shapes [and biological outcomes]. 

“When a protein is first manufactured, and then peels off from the ribosome, it immediately assumes a three-dimensional spatial pattern. This shape is directly related to the charges on its surface and the ways in which they interact.”(Miller, et. al., 2002) 

To summarize basic biophysics, the biological activity or specificity of action of various molecules is intimately related to their structure or their exact three-dimensional spatial configuration. Electronic energy, and electrons, move through protein molecules, and between their different parts, and can pass among different molecules. We now understand that energetic mechanisms for biological regulation involve electron flows and electron transfers of electronic energy between molecules. These molecules change their shape, and thereby change their specific action and activity, based on their energy status. Additionally influencing biomolecular activity, or reactivity, is the fusion of electron clouds within a conjugated system and among conjugated systems. These mechanisms can account for cohesion, which is the adherence of such molecules to each other for the governing of energy transfers or chemical operations. Such fusion, and related phenomena, greatly influences the structure of larger aggregates of molecules and portions of living cells, such as membranes. 

Energized Structures Involved in Carcinogenesis 
As mentioned previously, many mainstream cancer researchers believe that cancerous transformation arises due to changes in the genetic code. However, far more goes on during carcinogenesis than genetic abnormalities alone. 

A series of papers written by Illmensee, Mintz and Hoppe in the 1970-1980s showed that replacing the fertilized nucleus of a mouse ovum by the nucleus of a teratocarcinoma did not create a mouse with cancer. Instead the mice when born were cancer free.(Seeger and Wolz, 1990) These studies suggest the theory that abnormalities in other cell structures outside of the nucleus, such as the cell membrane and the mitochondria, and functional disturbances in cellular energy production and cell membrane potential, are also involved in cancerous transformation. 

In examining data that support this theory, as far back as 1938, Dr. Paul Gerhardt Seeger originated the idea that destruction or inactivation of enzymes, like cytochrome oxidase in the respiratory chain of the mitochondria, was involved in the development of cancer. Seeger indicated in his publications that the initiation of malignant degeneration was due to alterations not to the nucleus, but to cytoplasmic organelles.(Seeger and Wolz, 1990) 

Mitochondrial dysfunction and changes in cytochrome oxidase have also been reported by other cancer researchers to impact carcinogenesis.(Sharp et al., 1992; Modica-Napolitano et al., 2001)

Seeger’s findings followed more than 50 years of cancer research. His teams concluded: 1) that cells become more electronegative in the course of cancerization; 2) that membrane degeneration occurs in the initial phase of carcinogenesis first in the external cell membrane and then in the inner mitochondrial membrane; 3) the degenerative changes in the surface membrane causes these membranes to become more permeable to water soluble substances. Then potassium, magnesium, and calcium migrate from the cells and sodium and water accumulate in the cell interior; 4) the degenerative changes in the inner membrane of the mitochondria causes loss of anchorage of critical mitochondrial enzymes; and 5) the mitochondria in cancer cells degenerate and are reduced in number. (Seeger and Wolz, 1990; Haltiwanger, 2002) 

Toxic Inhibition of Bioelectric Functions 
Numerous toxins have been identified that are capable of causing cancerous transformation. Many of these toxins not only cause genetic abnormalities, but also affect the structures and electrical functions of the cell membrane and the mitochondria. 

Toxic compounds that disrupt the electrical potential of cell membranes and the structure of mitochondrial membranes will deactivate the electron transport chain and disturb oxygen-dependent energy production. Cells will then revert to fermentation, which is a less efficient primeval form of energy production. According to Seeger and others, the conversion to glycolysis, secondary to the deactivation of the electron transport chain, has a profound effect on the proliferation of tumor cells. These researchers believe that the virulence of cancer cells is inversely proportional to the activity of the respiratory chain. Conversion to glycolysis as a primary mechanism for energy production results in excessive accumulation of organic acids and pH reductions almost universally demonstrated in cancerous tissues.(Seeger and Wolz, 1990; Haltiwanger, 2002)  

The Body: Electric Vehicle of Consciousness 
Among the electrical properties that cells demonstrate are the ability to conduct electricity, create electrical fields, and function as electrical generators and batteries. This sounds like a science fiction movie, but it is a scientifically-proven reality, 

In electrical equipment the electrical charge carriers are electrons. In the body, electricity is carried by a number of mobile charge carriers as well as electrons. Although many supposed authorities argue that electricity in the body is only carried by charged ions, Robert O. Becker and others have shown that electron semi conduction also takes place in biological polymers.(Becker and Selden, 1985; Becker, 1990) 

The major charge carriers of biological organisms are negatively charged electrons, positively charged hydrogen protons, positively charged sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium ions, and negatively charged anions particularly phosphate ions. The work of Mae Wan Ho and Fritz Popp proved that cells and tissues also conduct electricity, and are linked by electromagnetic phonons and photons.(Ho, 1996; Haltiwanger, 2002) 

The body uses the exterior cell membrane, and positively charged mineral ions that are maintained in different concentrations on each side of the cell membrane, to create a cell membrane potential (i.e., a voltage difference across the membrane) and a strong electrical field around the cell membrane. As shown in figure 5.10, this electrical field is a readily available source of energy for a significant number of cellular activities including membrane transport and the generation of electrical impulses in the brain, nerves, heart, and muscles. (Brown, 1999) 

The storage of electrical charge in the membrane and the generation of an electrical field create a battery function so that the liquid crystal semiconducting cytoskeletal proteins can in a sense plug into this field and power up cell structures such as genetic material. In other words, within the cytoplasm of cells lies a protein crystal network or lattice-like electrical matrix through which electrical currents and electromagnetic fields are conducted and pass to affect the major structures and functions of all cells. 

The voltage potential across cellular membranes create surprisingly powerful electric fields that approach 10,000,000 volts/ meter according to Reilly and up to 20,000,000 volts/meter according to Brown.(Reilly, 1998; Brown, 1999) 

Like cellular membranes, the body uses mitochondrial membranes and positively charged hydrogen ions to create strong membrane potentials. Hydrogen ions are maintained in a high concentration on the outside of the inner mitochondrial membrane by the action of the electron transport chain. This creates a mitochondrial membrane potential of about 40,000,000 volts/ meter. When this proton electricity flows back across the inner mitochondrial membrane it is used to power a molecular motor called ATP synthase, which loads negatively charged phosphate anions onto ADP thus creating ATP.(Brown, 1999) 

ADP, ATP and other molecules that are phosphate carriers are electrochemical molecules that exchange phosphate charges between other cellular molecules. According to Brown, “The flow of phosphate charge is not used to produce large-scale electrical gradients, as in conventional electricity, but rather more local electrical fields within molecules.”(Brown, 1999) The body uses phosphate electricity to activate and deactivate enzymes in the body by charge transfer, which causes these enzymes to switch back and forth between different conformational states. So in a sense enzymes and other types of proteins such as cytoskeletal proteins may function as electrical switches. 

The liquid crystal proteins that compose the cytoskeleton support, stabilize, and connect the liquid crystal components of the cell membrane with other cell organelles. The cytoskeletal proteins have multiple roles:

These proteins composing the cytoskeleton serve as mechanical scaffolds that organize enzymes and water, and anchor the cell to structures in the extracellular matrix via linkages through the cell membrane. According to Wolfe, “cytoskeletal frameworks also reinforce the plasma membrane and fix the positions of junctions, receptors, and connections to the extracellular matrix.”(Wolfe, 1993) 

Self-assembling cytoskeletal proteins are dynamic network structures that create a fully integrated electronic and probably fiber-optic continuum that links and integrates the proteins of the extracellular matrix with the cell organelle.(Haltiwanger, 1998; Oschman, 2000) 

Cytoskeletal proteins also structurally and electronically link the cell membrane with cell organelles. 

Ultimately, every part of your body is linked bio-electrically to every other body part, and to the ambient environment within which you exist. 

Cytoskeletal Proteins are Altered in Cancer Cells 
Given this more comprehensive understanding of electrical linkages throughout the body in health, consider what happens during disease. We will use cancer, once again, to illustrate. 

Alterations in cancer cells include a reversion to arrangements typical of embryonic cells. Contacts and connections with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and neighboring cells break down in cancer cells. The change of connections of the cytoskeletal proteins with ECM components, and the cell membrane, disrupts the flow of inward current into cancer cells, affects their genetic activity, and is an important factor in disabling oxygen-dependent energy production. 

Cells obtain energy from food either by fermentation or oxygen-mediated cellular respiration. Both methods start with the process of glycolysis, which is the splitting of glucose (6 carbon) into two molecules of pyruvate (3 carbon). Biologists recognize that glycolysis, the oldest metabolic way to produce ATP energy, has been preserved as a backup system in all living organisms. Glycolysis happens in the cytoplasm and does not require oxygen in order to produce ATP, but it is also a much less efficient method than aerobic respiration. 

The enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase plays a pivotal role in determining whether energy is extracted from glucose by aerobic or anaerobic methods. This enzyme exists in an altered form in cancer cells.(Garnett, 1998) 

Overall membrane changes, mitochondrial dysfunction, loss of normal cellular electronic connections, and enzyme changes are all factors that contribute to the permanent reliance of cancer cells on the ancient method of glycolysis for energy production. 

The Electrical Charge at Cell Surfaces 
All cells possess an electrical potential that exists across the cell membrane. This is commonly referred to as the cell membrane potential. Why is this the case? 

Cell membranes are composed of a bilayer of highly mobile fat (i.e., lipid) molecules that electrically act as insulators (i.e., dielectrics; see figure 5.10.) The insulating properties of the cell membrane lipids also act to restrict the movement of charged ions and electrons across the membrane except through specialized membrane-spanning protein-ion-channels;(Aidley and Stanfield, 1996) Membrane-spanning protein semiconductors may also be active in this transmembrane flow of charged particles.(Oschman, 2000) 

Since cell membranes are selectively permeable to sodium and potassium ions, a different concentration of these and other charged mineral ions build up on either side of the membranes. The different concentrations of these charged molecules cause the outer membrane surface to have a relatively higher positive charge than the inner membrane surface. This creates an electrical potential across the membrane.(Charman, 1996) All cells have an imbalance in electrical charges between the inside of the cell and the outside of the cell. This difference, again, is known as the cell membrane potential. 

Because this membrane potential is created by the difference in the concentration of ions inside and outside the cell, this creates an electrochemical force, or gradient, across the cell membrane. According to peer reviewed science, “Electrochemical forces across the membrane regulate chemical exchange across the cell.” The cell membrane potential helps control cell membrane permeability to a variety of nutrients and helps turn on the machinery of the cell; particularly energy production, and the synthesis of macromolecules. (Reilly, 1998) 

All healthy cells have a membrane potential of about -60 to -100mV. The negative sign of the membrane potential indicates that the inside surface of the cell membrane is relatively more negative than the immediate exterior surface of the cell membrane.(Cure, 1991) In living cells, the inside surfaces of cell membranes is slightly negative relative to its external cell membrane surface.(Reilly, 1998) If you consider the transmembrane potential of healthy cells, the electric field across human cell membranes at any given moment, as mentioned, is enormous!(Brown, 1999; Reilly, 1998) 

Healthy cells maintain, inside of themselves, a high concentration of potassium and a low concentration of sodium. But when cells are injured, or cancerous, sodium and water flows into the cells and potassium, magnesium, calcium and zinc are lost from the cell interior. Then the cell membrane potential falls.(Cone, 1970, 1975, 1985; Cope, 1978). 

In originally writing on this subject for a monograph on cancer, Dr. Haltiwanger found that trying to describe which of the above changes came first, was much like arguing whether chickens preceded eggs. What is known is that carcinogenic cofactors include changes in: 

1) cell membrane structure; 
2) membrane function; 
3) cell concentrations of minerals; 
4) cell membrane potentials; 
5) electrical connections within the cells and between cells; and 
6) changes in cellular energy production. 

For more insight into these changes, consider the next section’s discussion on the electrodynamic zones of every cell. 

Discrete Electrical Zones in Cells 
Cell physiologist Robert Charman is exceptional in relaying understanding that the electrical properties of a cell vary by location. 

According to Charman, a cell contains four electrified zones.(Charman, 1996) As shown in figure 5.10, the central zone contains negatively charged organic molecules and maintains a steady bulk negativity. An inner positive zone exists between the inner aspect of the cell membrane and the central negative zone. The inner positive zone is composed of a thin layer of freely mobile mineral cations particularly potassium and, according to Hans Nieper, a small amount of calcium as well.(Nieper, 1985) The outer positive zone exists around the outer surface of the cell membrane and consists of a denser zone of mobile cations composed mostly of sodium, calcium, and a small amount of potassium. Because the concentration of positive charges is larger on the outer surface of the cell membrane than the concentration of positive charges on the inner surface of the cell membrane an electrical potential exists across the cell membrane. 

If you wonder how the surface of cells can be electrically negative if a shell of positively charged mineral ions surrounds the exterior surface of the cell membrane, the answer lies in the glycocalyx the existence of an outer electrically negative zone composed of the outermost cell coat. 

This outermost electrically negative zone is composed of negatively charged sialic acid molecules that cap the tips of glycoproteins and glycolipids that extend outward from the cell membrane like tree branches. The outermost negative zone is separated from the positive cell membrane surface by a distance of about 20 micrometers. According to Charman, “It is this outermost calyx zone of steady negativity that makes each cell act as a negatively charged body; every cell creates a negatively charged field around itself that influences any other charged body close to it.”(Charman, 1996) 

As stated in figure 5.10, it is the negatively charged sialic acid residues of the cell coat (glycocalyx) that gives each cell its zeta potential. Since the negatively charged electric field around cells are created by sialic acid residues, any factor that increases or decreases the number of sialic acid residues will change the degree of surface negativity a cell exhibits. Later in this chapter we will discuss how cancer cells have significantly more sialic acid molecules in their cell coat and, as a result, cancer cells have a greater surface negativity. 

In advancing a clinical discussion on this subject, Dr. Haltiwanger cited one possible reason that enzyme therapy is beneficial in cancer. He believes certain enzymes can remove sialic acid residues from cancer cells reducing their surface negativity. 

Bioelectric Changes in Cancer Cells 
There are at least five characteristic features of cancer cells that affect their activity and abnormality. Cancer cells have: 

1. less efficient production of cellular energy (ATP); 
2. cell membranes that exhibit different electrochemical properties and a different distribution of electrical charges than normal tissues.(Cure, 1991; 1995); 
3. different lipid and sterol content than normal cells.(Revici, 1961); 
4. altered membrane composition and membrane permeability, which results in the movement of potassium, magnesium and calcium out of cancer cells and the accumulation of sodium and water into cells.(Seeger and Wolz, 1990); 
5. have lower potassium concentrations and higher sodium and water content than normal cells.(Cone, 1970, 1975; Cope, 1978) 

As a result of these mineral movements, membrane composition changes, energy abnormalities, and membrane charge distribution abnormalities, there is a drop in the normal membrane potential and membrane capacitance. We will now discuss these features in more depth. 

Minerals and Membrane potentials 
One of the mysteries of cancer is whether energy abnormalities cause or contribute to the mineral alterations, or whether mineral alterations and membrane changes cause or contribute to the observed energy abnormalities. In either case, mitochondrial production of ATP is disrupted. All these bioenergetic abnormalities, generally overlooked by mainstream medical researchers and oncologists, are present and should be addressed therapeutically. 

A change in mineral content of the cell, particularly an increase in the intracellular concentration of positively charged sodium ions and an increase in negative charges on the cell coat (glycocalyx) are two of the major factors causing cancerous cells to have lower membrane potentials than healthy cells. (Cure, 1991) 

Cancer cells exhibit both lower electrical membrane potentials and lower electrical impedance than normal cells. (Cone, 1985; Blad and Baldetorp, 1996; Stern, 1999) The reduction in membrane electrical field strength will in turn cause alterations in the metabolic functions of the cell. 

As mentioned, normal cells in their resting phase maintain a high membrane potential of around -60mV to -100mV. When cells begin cell division, and DNA synthesis, the membrane potential falls to around 15mV. (Cure, 1995) Then, when cellscomplete their cell divisions, their membrane potentials return to normal. This also strongly indicates genetic activity occurring during mitosis is electromagnetically supported, if not driven. 

Related findings were published in Science by Seykally and colleagues at the University of California’s chemistry department. These investigators determined the electrical gradient between DNA’s inner and outer regions, was in the neighborhood of -200mV when adequately hydrated with structured water. During mitosis, and DNA dehydration, electrical potentials drop almost a hundred fold.(Seykally, 1996) Putting these findings together, it is possible that mitosis places an extra burden on the structured water matrix of DNA resulting in reduced electrical potentials. 

According to Cone, another outstanding electrical feature of cancer cells, other than maintaining their membrane potential at a low value, their intracellular concentration of sodium is higher.(Cone, 1970, 1975, 1985) Cone has discussed in his publications that a sustained elevation of intracellular sodium may act as a mitotic trigger causing cells to go into cell division (mitosis), an earmark of cancer cells.(Cone, 1985). It is generally thought that a steady supply of cellular energy and a healthy cell membrane are needed to maintain a normal or healthy concentration of intracellular minerals and a healthy membrane potential. This means that conditions associated with: 1) disruption of cellular energy production, and 2) membrane structure/function alterations, will result in changes in the intracellular mineral concentration and a lowered membrane potential. 

This statement may be true for all injured cells besides cancerous ones. 

Dr. Cure has proposed that the accumulation of an excessive amount of negative charges on the exterior surface of cancer cells will depolarize cancer cell membranes. As previously stated, he also believes that the depolarization (i.e., fall in membrane potential) of the cancer cell membrane due to the accumulation of excess negative surface charges may precede and create the reduction in intracellular potassium and the rise in the intracellular sodium launching the cell into a carcinogenic state.(Cure, 1991) 

The implications of this heavily supported thesis are profound in terms of the potential role genes play in cancer. If the creation of an excessive negative charge on the surface of a cell can initiate a carcinogenic change, then it likewise means genetic changes can result from the development of cellular electrical abnormalities. This also means that the development of genetic abnormalities may not be the prime factor leading to cancerous transformation. This contradicts the dogma regurgitated by mainstream authorities for most of the twentieth century. 

Cure’s theory dovetails with Dr. Paul Gerhardt Seeger’s work as well. Seeger, another distinguished cancer investigator, proposed that cancer arises from alterations in the functions of cell organelles outside of the nucleus.(Seeger and Wolz, 1990) This idea suggests that certain chemicals, viruses, and bacteria may predispose to carcinogenesis by modifying the electrical charge of the cell surface resulting in alterations in: a) cell membrane and organelle membrane electrical potentials, b) the functions of these membranes, c) intracellular mineral content, d) energy production, and e) genetic expression. 

This knowledge also implies that therapeutic methods that modify the electrical charge of cell membranes, the composition of cell membranes, and the content of intracellular minerals, also result in alterations in genetic activity. 

A healthy cell membrane potential is strongly linked to the control of cell membrane transport mechanisms as well as DNA activity. It is also critical for protein synthesis and aerobic energy production. Since injured and cancerous cells cannot maintain a normal membrane potential they will have electronic dysfunctions that will impede repair and the reestablishment of normal metabolic functions. Therefore, a key component of cell repair and effective cancer treatment would be to reestablish a healthy membrane potential in the body’s cells. (Nieper, 1966a, 1966b, 1966c, 1967a, 1967b, 1968, 1985; Alexander, 1997b; Nieper et al., 1999) 

More on the Electrical Properties of Cells 
The idea of classifying cancers by their electrical properties is old. In fact, it was first proposed by Fricke and Morse in 1926. (Fricke and Morse, 1926) In 1981, Foster and Schepps determined the lowered electrical conductivity of cancerous tissues, and heightened resistance to the formation of bioelectric fields, differed significantly from normal tissues. (Foster and Schepps, 1981) These investigators also determined that cancerous cells resonated differently from normal cells. 

More recently investigators learned that the electrical conductivity of a tissue depends on both the “physicochemical bulk properties” properties of tissue fluids and solids and the microstructural properties (i.e., the geometry of microscopic compartments). This appears to be related to the electrical conductivity and permittivity of biological materials which varies characteristically depending on the frequency of energy influencing the system.(Scharfetter, 1999) 

In healthy tissues, electrical currents are carried by both ionic conduction and electron semi-conduction. In electrical equipment, on the other hand, only electrons, or electron holes, carry the electrical current. Therefore, the electrical properties of biological tissues depend on the physical mechanisms which control the mobility and availability of the relevant ions such as sodium, chloride, potassium, magnesium and calcium.(Scharfetter, 1999) 

The electrical charges associated with semiconducting proteins and extracellular matrix proteoglycans also contribute to the conductivity of a tissue.

Moreover, the electrical properties of tissues relates to electron availability, which can be affected by such factors as: a) the degree of tissue acidity, b) the degree of tissue hypoxia, c) the degree that water is structured, d) the availability of electron donors such as antioxidants, and e) the presence of electrophilic compounds on the cell membrane and in the extracellular matrix (ECM). 

The cell membrane CM interface is the location where molecules like hormones, peptide growth factors, cytokines, and neurotransmitters initiate chemical signaling from cell to cell and where these chemical-signaling events can be regulated and amplified by the weak nonionizing oscillating electromagnetic fields that are naturally present in the ECM. (Adey, 1988) 

The cell membrane ECM interface has a lower electrical resistance than the cell membrane so electrical currents will be preferentially conducted through this space. This cell surface current flow is involved in controlling many of the physiological functions of the cells and tissues.(Adey, 1981) 

Conductivity in both healthy and diseased tissues, including malignancies, can be affected by variations in: temperature, oxygen levels, mineral concentrations in intracellular and extracellular fluid, the types of minerals present in intracellular and extracellular fluids, pH (both intracellular and extracellular), level of hydration (cell water content and extracellular water content), the ratio of structured/unstructured water inside of the cell, membrane lipid/sterol composition, free radical activity, the amount of negative charges present on the surface of cell membranes, the amount and structure of hyaluronic acid in the ECM, the emergence of endogenous electrical fields, the application of external electromagnetic fields, and the presence of chemical electrophilic toxins and heavy metals both within the cell and in the ECM. 

In summary, the electrical properties of sick cells are different than the electrical properties of the normal tissues that surround them. Many authors have reported that cancer cells have higher intracellular sodium, higher content of unstructured water, lower intracellular potassium, magnesium and calcium concentrations, and more negative charges on their cell surface. (Hazelwood et al., 1974; Cone, 1975; Cope, 1978; Brewer, 1985, Cure, 1991) These abnormalities result in cancer cells having lower transmembrane potentials than normal cells and altered membrane permeability. These cell membrane changes interfere with the flow of oxygen and nutrients into the cells and impair aerobic metabolism causing cancer cells to rely more on anaerobic metabolism for energy production. Anaerobic metabolism, excessive sodium concentrations, low transmembrane potential and pH alterations in turn create intracellular conditions more conducive to cellular mitosis. Recognizing that cancer cells have these altered bioelectric and electrochemical properties also leads to the formulation of strategies directed toward correcting these properties. 

Very briefly, according to Dr. Robert Pekar, “Every biological process is also an electric process,” and “health and sickness are related to the bioelectric currents in your body (Pekar, 1997).” Alternatively, Dr. Merrill Garnett might conclude cancer, and other biological challenges, are first and foremost electrogenetic disturbances vibrational dissonance with a universal rhythm.

 Beginning Electrogenetics

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