THE GREAT DECEIT
A Veritas Foundation Staff Study
A Veritas Foundation Staff Study
A LEFTIST INSTRUMENT
Most people think of the term "social science" as something that developed out of the academic world. "Social science" has an emotional appeal to the public. Those asserting exclusive ownership of this concept insist that it ranks in scientific complexity and also in certainty, with atomic theory, genetics, astro-physics and other technical sciences. One authority claiming to be an expert in the "social sciences" sums up this claim for an exclusive monopoly by declaring that: "the problems are intricate and cannot be fully understood even by the intelligent minority"; and that the average layman ... "will have to accept the word of the experts, as he does on many other important public issues ..." just like the " ... release of atomic energy or radar ..."1
We read in a volume edited by this same social scientist, Seymour E. Harris, of Harvard University, that "no science program which omits the social sciences can even remotely fulfill its responsibilities."2 From another direction we hear Morris R. Cohen, touted as one of America's great philosophers, declare that we must have a " . . . proper integration of the different social sciences into an adequate study of law. . . "3
Another "social scientist" informs us that "the services of real social scientists would be as indispensable to Fascists as to Communists and Democrats, just as are the services of physicists and physicians."4
Today, as always, the communist and socialist movements both claim to represent "the true social science". As has been noted previously, the socialist movement for over 100 years had used "social science" as a label characterizing the methods and aims of socialism.
"Social science" has been a designation from its very origin of a philosophy hostile to private enterprise. Socialists and communists used the term "social science" and "scientific socialism" interchangeably. The term "science" was added because "science" is a good word, identified in the minds of the general public with progress, and with the mathematical certainty of future benefits to humanity. This is a semantic device which flatters the power aspirations and expectations of frustrated elements in society.
An outstanding example of the use of the term "social science" by the modem socialist movement was seen in the creation of the Rand School of Social Science by the American Socialist Society in 1906.5
The communists utilize the label of "social science" in their theoretical magazine "Science and Society" where the Kremlin propaganda parades as the scientifically certain wave of the future.6
The chief communist training school is called the Jefferson School of Social Science.7
"Social Science" overawes the layman
In reading over the literature of the socialist-communist movement the term "social science" is used in monotonous repetition. Confronted with such an imposing title the tendency of the average person is to give up any attempt to probe into so complicated a matter.
The socialist and communist movements, therefore, have won a considerable initial advantage by taking over exclusive ownership of the term "social science", which they have exploited extensively to further their objectives. They have tried indeed to confer on "social science" the hegemony over all the genuine sciences.
Frederick Engels, Karl Marx's alter ego, summed it up for the leftist movement during the nineteenth century when he indicated that what today is called "social science" is a "weltanshauung" (world-view) which is expressed and proved" ... in all actual science." 8
In a book written in Soviet Russia and translated into almost every language on earth as a guide to communists the world over it is stated that:
"Before the working class obtains power, it is obliged to live under the yoke of capital and to bear in mind constantly, in its struggle for liberation, what will be the behavior of all the given classes. It must know on what this behavior depends, and by what such behavior is determined. This question, may be answered only by social science."
"Among the social sciences there are two important branches which consider not only a single field of social life, but the entire social life in all its fullness; in other words, they are concerned not with any single set of phenomena (such as, economic, or legal, or religious phenomena, etc.), but take up the entire life of society, as a whole, concerning themselves with all the groups of social phenomena."9
Encyclopedia has a captive audience
The socialists, as has been pointed out previously, had harnessed the term "social science" as a deceptive cover for their movement in America as early as 1842. Currently there exists a work known as the Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, which is the major encyclopedic source of reference on social matters in the English language. It is used as a source book in almost every college and university in the English speaking world.
It is a little known fact that this encyclopedia is a socialist product. Its promoters, organizers, and contributors, for the most part, read like a Who's Who of the socialist and communist movements. The editor-in-chief was Edwin R. A. Seligman 10 to The associate editor was Alvin Johnson, and the managing editor was Max Lerner. All these have been prominent luminaries in the socialist world.11
A cursory check of the encyclopedia's contributors shows that over 340 of them appear prominently in socialist-communist front movements. These 340 wrote most of the key articles in the Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. More than 435 additional names listed there as consultants were also found on the rolls of socialist-communist front groups.
By projecting the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences the Fabian socialists iilt this country were able to achieve at one stroke a virtual monopoly of the basic research relating to the "social sciences". Any student or teacher in the English speaking world wishing to study any branch of social subjects must of necessity consult this Encyclopedia. A socialistic bias is obvious throughout its entire 15 volumes.
Socialist school is accredited
The above mentioned Alvin Johnson in 1919 with the aid of many of the same persons involved in the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences founded the New School of Social Research. At that time the Fabian socialists in England considered the New School as the American "counterpart of the London School of Economics." Frequently the same lecturers were featured in both institutions.
The London School of Economics was founded by Fabian socialists in England as an accredited institution which would be able to indoctrinate Britons with socialist ideas. It was projected to bring about socialism through the medium of "social science.12
In spite of its socialistic nature the New School of Social Research has been granted accredited recognition by the New York State Board of Regents,
In its bulletin, the New School declares:
"Under an unconditional charter granted by the Board of Regents of the State of New York, successful study with the Faculty leads to the degrees of Master of Arts and Doctor of Philosophy, to the degrees of Master and Doctor of Social Science." (Italics ours--ed.) 13
Thousands of persons have graduated from this institution and many of them have joined the teaching profession throughout the nation.
The prospectus of the New School declares: "that professional training is thoroughly completed only as the student becomes clearly aware of the relation of his particular area of specialization to the entire field of the social sciences." (Italics ours) .14
Socialistic schools such as this, however, are only a small part of the apparatus which today is grinding out leftist recruits and socialistic beliefs throughout the nation. The Fabian socialist tactic of infiltrating our educational institutions, publishing firms, writing of text books, and book reviewing media along with other modem instruments of information operates in such a way that it is not visible to the average person. It is deliberately designed so as to remain invisible, with its socialistic nature carefully hidden.
Million members in 1919
At a meeting of American Fabian socialists as early as 1919, the extent of covert socialist penetration. in America was defined:
"The Socialist movement has produced a million men and women in the United States who will be of supreme value in the impending crisis. They are destined to furnish the cultured leadership of which the Labor movement is now in need. Labor needs people who understand the class struggle. The Socialist Party should supply them. We need not be concerned for the old party. A super-Socialism is developing which is destined shortly to embrace everything that stands for the interests of labor."15
This "Super-Socialism" was further elaborated at the same conference by Stuart Chase, who (representing the Fabian Club of Chicago) stated: "Socialism under any other name would smell as sweet"
John Dewey, the leader of the League for Industrial Democracy until his death (1952), once wrote:
"We are in for some kind of socialism, call it by whatever name we please, and no matter what it will be called when it is realized."16
Garet Garrett brilliantly pin-pointed this same process:
"Revolution in the modem case is no longer an uncouth business. The ancient demagogic art, like every other art, has, as we say, advanced. It has become in fact a science--the science of political dynamics. And your scientific revolutionary in spectacles regards force in a cold, impartial manner. It mayor may not be necessary. If not, so much the better; to employ it wantonly, or for the love of it, when it is not necessary, is vulgar, unintelligent and wasteful Destruction is not the aim. The more you destroy the less there is to take over. Always the single end in view is a transfer of power.
"Outside of the Communist party and its aura of radical intellectuals few Americans seemed to know that revolution has become a department of knowledge, with a philosophy and a doctorate of its own, a language, a great body of experimental data, schools of method, textbooks, and manuals-and this was revolution regarded not as an act of heroic redress in a particular situation, but revolution as a means to power in the abstract case.
"There was a prodigious literature of revolutionary thought concealed only by the respectability of its dress.'17
Garrett further declared:
"This revolutionary elite was nothing you could define as a party. It had no name, no habitat, no rigid line. The only party was the Communist Party, and it was included; but its attack was too obvious and its proletarianism too crude, and moreover, it was under the stigma of not belonging. Nobody could say that about the elite above. It did belong, it was eminently respectable, and it knew the American scene. What it represented was a quantity of bitter intellectual radicalism infiltrated from the top downward as a doctorhood of professors, writers, critics, analysts, advisers, administrators, directors of research, and so on,a prepared revolutionary intelligence in spectacles. There was no plan to begin with. But there was a shibboleth that united them all: 'Capitalism is finished."18
However, despite Mr. Garrett's observation, this study will show that the revolutionary "elite" did have a "name" and did have a "habitat". As previously stated, Whittaker Chambers talked about this same hidden force developing "somewhat formlessly, but always in the same direction" and always "in the name of .Liberalism.19 These two brilliant minds pinpointed the process but left out the identification of the hidden hand which guides and stimulates the socialistic process. Although Mr. Garrett does not identify the political form of Fabianism he does aptly label the method as "the science of political dynamics".
Social science invades universities
It cannot be emphasized too much that "social science" is not a product and an invention of the universities. It did not spring from the universities but was insinuated into them from the outside by socialist political schemers. It took the socialists many years of ceaseless endeavor before they could get socialistic thinking and aims accepted in the universities under the disguise of "social sciences".
In 1865, F. B. Sanborn[L] was a founder and long-time secretary of the American Social Science Association. Sanborn had been a member of a triumvirate which had formed the Concord School of Philosophy in Massachusetts. His leading colleague in this endeavor was A. Bronson Alcott,[R] a well-known socialist revolutionary of those days. The methods of the Concord School of Philosophy were responsible for influencing John Dewey and his progressive methods which swept over this country under the label of "social science'.20
Professor Albion W. Small in 1916, wrote:
"Until 1876 there was absolutely no instruction in social science in this country which could by any stretch of the imagination be called 'advanced' "21
Professor Small was a long-time socialist of the Fabian variety who had pursued a policy of deceptive persuasion in concert with a handful of so-called "social scientists". The influence of this pioneer group finally grew to dominate social science teaching in American colleges and universities.
The founding of Johns Hopkins University in 1876 provided for the penetration of socialists into American Universities through the so-called social sciences.22
Professor Herbert B. Adams was made the head of the Department of History and Politics at Johns Hopkins. He was appointed by Daniel Coit Gilman, president of the new university, in 1876.23 Gilman's daughter, Elizabeth Gilman, eventually became a candidate for governor on the Socialist Party ticket in the State of Maryland.24
On the wall of the principal lecture room Adams emblazoned an aphorism quoted from the historian Freeman "History is past politics and politics is present history". This fitted into the socialist scheme of making everything and everyone in society a target for their manipulations.
Adams, fresh from a German university, gathered around himself a group of socialists who were also German university products such as Dr. Richard T. Ely (Economics), Professor Albion W. Small (Sociology) and Professor Edward Allsworth Ross (Sociology).25 During the period when this group was being educated in the German universities the economic and sociological teaching in that country was primarily concerned with teaching different types of socialisms (e.g. Marxian socialism, Lasallean socialism, Bismarckian state socialism and Katheder socialism or socialism of the Chair).26
In a few years, the Johns Hopkins University group turned out large numbers of teachers and professors who infiltrated universities such as Columbia, University of Chicago, Yale, Harvard, and the University of Wisconsin.
In short order this same group managed to secure a finn grip on the text book publishing business in America. Under the title of Citizens Library of Economics Politics and Sociology, with Richard T. Ely as general editor, this group issued textbooks with a strong socialistic bias, under the aegis of "social science". These textbooks were authored by such socialists as Richard T. Ely, John A. Hobson (British Fabian), E. A. Ross, Jane Addams (Fabian socialist social worker), Robert Hunter, John Spargo, Thomas Kirkup, Lester F. Ward, Franklin H. Giddings and Charles Zeublin.27
These text books were used in most of the colleges and universities in the United States at the tum of the century, and some have survived as required reading to the present day. Thus the early success in influencing educated men and women through a small handful of people in sensitive positions encouraged the socialists to develop special techniques for infiltrating important control centers of our society. The socialist permeation of the book publishing business became so extensive that today they have not only succeeded in promoting the publishing, writing and distributing of exclusively socialistic material, but they also have a finn grip on the reviewing of books which, in the final analysis, determines what the general public reads.
A generation after Johns Hopkins created its socialistic flying squad who became instructors and professors at other universities, the director of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society (later the League for Industrial Democracy-American Fabians) reported:
"I am continually coming across professors in colleges, ministers, journalists, social workers, and collegians of various professions, formerly members of undergraduate Chapters, who are now doing splendid work in bringing the Socialist or radical point of view before the great unreached publie---working, sometimes most quietly, but effectively, nevertheless.
"Our work, however, has but just begun. With over 1,300 academic and professional colleges in the country, with a student population of over 250,000, we have a well-nigh unlimited field for future endeavor." 28
The development of such a large socialist following among educated people would have been impossible without strong socialist influence in the publishing and distribution of text books and other social and political literature in the United States.
As had been mentioned previously, the socialists boasted that they had indoctrinated "a million men and women in the United States by 1919".29
In 1915, American Fabian socialists reported:
"Ten years have wrought marked changes. Over three score of colleges now contain I.8.S. chapters (Intercollegiate Socialist Society, later called League for Industrial Democracy ed.); hundreds of lectures on this subject are given every season before tens of thousands of collegians; scores of courses in socialism are contained in college curricula, while publishers vie with one another to obtain for their lists standard books on socialism." (Our italics--ed).30
Publishers surrender to leftismWhen socialists declared that "publishers vie with one another to obtain for their lists standard books on socialism" they realized that here was a possibility not only to spread socialist thinking through respectable channels, but that they also had a golden opportunity to profit personally by exploiting the publishing field In the intervening years the Fabian socialist element has been able to live in a most affluent style as authors, editors, lecturers, teachers and publishers.
Surveys show that throughout the years most of the top publishing houses in America have been used to flood the nation with books written by authors having socialistic or communistic connections.
Many publishers did not do this because of any particular sympathy with socialism but merely because they found it a profitable business practice to ride the crest of what had been made the fashionable literature of the time. The damage to national morale and the erosion of the American spirit of enterprise was nonetheless just as, great as if these publishers had actually been socialists or communists.
One example of this process was the Macmillan Company. Under the guise of "social science" textbooks, since the beginning of the 20th century, this company had issued a flood of books authored by such socialist luminaries as Richard T. Ely (economics), E. A. Ross (sociology), Charles A. Beard (history), Franz Boas (social anthropology) and Thorstein Veblen (social economics). These topics today are classified as major divisions of the so-called "social science". Such books became required reading and texts for tens of thousands of college students throughout America. Even teachers opposed to the collectivist principle could scarcely avoid using texts that oriented their students towards socialism.
Macmillan and other publishers were used by socialists to spread the concept of "social science" as a cover for socialistic credos. The Macmillan Company published books by socialistic authors for more than three generations and had distributed them throughout the entire English speaking world 31 Appleton & Co., a long established publishing finn with a respectable background, nevertheless had chosen socialists as editors of the American Cyclopedia (1858). Among the contributors to this reference work was Karl Marx.32
The example set by Macmillan was followed by other publishers, and socialistic authors began to grind out an avalanche of printed material which dealt with the theme of socialistic "social science" through fiction, social work, historical biography, sex literature, philosophy of education and every other conceivable field in the book world.33 The general claim of this type of literature is that it is based on the latest findings of "social science". The leftist slant behind it all is thus effectively obscured to all but those familiar with Socialist-Communist deceit.
Bookclubs show socialist slantA private enterprise phenomenon of modern times is the Book of-the-Month-Club. Its impact upon the reading public of America is incalculable. A few facts and figures give an indication of the colossal nature of its operations. The Book-of-the-Month-Club ''has distributed enough books to :fill more than twenty libraries of the size of the Library of Congress.34 When it is considered that the Library of Congress is one of the largest repositories of the printed word in the world, and by far the largest in the United States, the magnitude of the Book-of-the-Month-Club operation can be realized. A more graphic illustration is that this Club has distributed more books than there are on "all the shelves of all the libraries in the whole United States."35
The Book-of-the-Month-Club began operations in the spring of 1926. Its first selection went out to 4,750 members in April of that year.36 Its first working staff consisted of two clerks and its working capital was "in the sum of $40,000."37
However, at the very beginning this club had another feature which is of great significance to this study. The heads of the Book of-the-Month-Club (BOMC) invented an editorial board "whose function it would be to represent the general public and to make selections from the new books of all publishers."38 This Board of Selection was made up of Henry Seidel Canby, chairman, who was also the founder and editor of the Saturday Review, William Allen White, a mid-western editor, Dorothy Canfield Fisher, novelist, Heywood Broun, newspaper columnist, and Christopher Morley, author.
Canby was a long-time protagonist of socialism and an energetic promoter of left-wing causes. According to the record, Canby was the chief authority entrusted with picking the selections which were presented to the public by the Book-of-the-Month-Club. Dorothy Canfield Fisher has a long record of communist front and socialistic activity. William Allen White was also noted for his socialistic bias. Heywood Broun ran the whole gamut of the radical movement which included both the League for Industrial Democracy, Rand School, Socialist Party and a score of communist front affiliations. Christopher Morley was a pro-leftist with a record of leftist associations.
Left-wingers have held dominant positions in the Book-of-the Month-Club editorial board continuously since its inception. Today, it is studded by such names as Clifton Fadiman, and John Mason Brown, having a long record of associations and affiliations with the radical movement.
Henry Seidel Canby and his cohorts had actual power in their hands where-by they could make or break not only authors but also publishing firms by either selecting or turning down books for Book of-the-Month-Club promotions. They were in a position to dominate vital segments of the American publishing industry.
At one stroke tremendous power was lodged in the hands of a group which was heavily in favor of the Fabian type of socialism. Since Fabian socialists have at their finger-tips the technique of clandestine infiltration, it is scarcely necessary to speculate whether or not this group utilized the Book-of-the-Month-Club to promote left-wing literature.
In order further to compound the socialist grip upon the publishing and distribution of books, in 1929 the Book-of-the-Month Club formed an international advisory committee to help pick books. This advisory committee was completely socialistic in background. Among its members were Thomas Mann, German socialist and cooperator with communist causes on an international scale; Arnold Bennett, a product of Fabian socialism; H. G. Wells, member of the early British Fabian organization; and Andre Maurois, publicist of socialist theories and partisan of many communist causes.
A check of the authors promoted through the Book-of-the Month-Club against the indices of government investigating bodies showed that over 300% of the authors of the selections and dividend books of the Book-of-the-Month-Club from 1926 through 1957 had communist front affiliations. Since there is no equivalent listing of persons affiliated to purely socialist fronts we can only speculate that of the remaining 700% a considerable proportion were of socialist origin. Such poisonous socialist and communist propaganda items as Bernard Shaw's Intelligent Woman's Guide to Socialism and the official Soviet text of New Russia's Primer were distributed by the !hundreds of thousands due to the impetus given to them by the Book-of-the-Month-Club operation.
Henry Seidel Canby as head of the magazine Saturday Review of Literature had assisting him from that magazine, William Rose Benet, also a veteran promoter of socialist and communist causes. A number on the Saturday Review staff also aided in sifting through the Book-of-the-Month-Club selections.39
Dorothy Canfield Fisher, who was devoted to the socialist theme, once admitted that in connection with the selection of books for the Book-of-the-Month Club that there often "is in the book a social or economic thesis, dear to the author's heart, by no means dear to the reader's." She also mentioned the fact that the judges ask of themselves "will the distribution of one (book) be socially desirable, that is, influence readers towards a more civilized attitude towards human life?"40 Since the majority of the judges were militant leftists it is quite obvious what they mean by literature that is "socially desirable" and books that have "a social or economic thesis dear to the author's heart".
The BOMC, however, was not the only organization heavily weighted with material of a leftist nature and authors having a socialistic bias. The Literary Guild of America which is known to at least equal the output of the BOMC has also followed the pattern of pushing leftist authors onto the American public.41 Its very first selection was co-authored by Heywood Broun, a long-time Fabian socialist. The Guild's editorial board was composed of six persons headed by Carl Van Doren, a long-time leader of the Fabian socialist movement in this country. Of the remaining five, four have well documented records of socialistic activity.
It has been estimated that between the Literary Guild and the BOMC over a billion dollars' worth of books have been funnelled into American homes and Libraries.42 Another book club whose selections have been heavily weighted with socialistic matter is the Book Find Club. In 1948 the California Un-American Activities Committee labelled the Book Find Club as "among typical examples of the Communist press and publications ... " This label has since been withdrawn. Failure to understand the difference between socialistic and communistic activities is responsible for this type of confusion. However, it is understandable how such confusion can arise since the Fabian socialists blow hot and cold on their cooperation with communist causes. Sometimes the socialist-communist cooperation is so close that a socialist is practically indistinguishable from his communist colleagues. The Book Find Club selections today are heavily weighted with leftist material.
The Book Club idea reputedly received its original impetus from socialist sources. In 1918 E. Haldeman-Julius began to grind out millions of copies of Little Blue Books, much of it either open or thinly disguised socialist propaganda. The distribution was carried on through the mails. The printing was done on the presses of the socialist publication The Appeal to Reason.43 Its success encouraged the development of the Book Club idea.
Thus, the American public was thoroughly conditioned for socialist propaganda passed off under the label of "social science". The process was a cumulative one. Socialistic schemers originally concentrated on infiltrating the colleges and universities under the guise of "social science". The universities in turn ground out thousands of young men and women conditioned to express socialistic ideas in their various fields of endeavor. The next development was a simplified form of socialistic "social science" offered to the general public in an 'appetizing manner through novels, biographies and light sociological literature. The book club groups then broke the barrier to book buyers at home by offering huge printings at low prices.
The indoctrination of the average reader with socialistic material completed the circle of socialist propaganda. The next phase was to capitalize on the built up sentiment for socialization by carrying out political action. Recent years have seen ample evidence of socialization advancing in all sectors of our society. This would have been impossible without the general softening up process carried on by socialist forces here over the last one hundred and twenty years.
SOCIALISM BEGINS AS "SOCIAL SCIENCE"
1. Seymour E. Harris, National Debt and the New Economics, McGraw Hill, N. Y., 1947, pp. 24-25.
2. Seymour E. Harris, editor, Saving American Capitalism, Alfred A. Knopf, N. Y., 1948, p. 364, article by James R. Newman, editorial staff, New Republic (Fabian socialistic) .
3 Morris R. Cohen, Reason and Law, The Free Press, Glencoe, Ill., p, 171.
4 Bernhard J. Stern, Historical Sociology, Citadel Press, N. Y. 1959, p. 20. Stern here quotes George A. Lundberg, Can Science Save Usi', N. Y., 1947, p. 48. Bernhard J. Stern, before his death in 1958, had been assistant editor of the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, taught at New School for Social Research, and was chairman of the board of editors of Science and Society, a. well-known communist publication. Stern, although entering into many joint efforts with socialists, was publicly known as a communist. Stern was co-author of General Anthropology, College Outline Series, Barnes & Noble, 1960. This work is required reading in most colleges and universities in America today
5.Presently called Tamiment Institute and Library, in New York City.
6.Science and Society--a Marxian quarterly-has been cited as "a communist publication" by a number of governmental bodies. See Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publications, prepared and released by the Committee on Uri-American Activities, U. S. House of Representatives, Washington, D.C., 1962, p. 199.
7 The Jefferson School of Social Science in New York City, (prospectus) Spring Term, May-June 1944.
"Jefferson School of Social Science---Cited as an adjunct of the Communist Party" (Attorney General Tom Clark, Dec. 4, 1947).
"Ordered to register as communist front organization with the Attorney General of 'the U. S., June 30, 1955." (Ref. Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publications, published Jan. 3, 1957. pp. 49·50,)
8.Howard Selsam, What is Philosophy-a Marxist Introduction, International Publishers
(Communist) N. Y., 1938, p. 142.
9 Nikolai Bukharin, Historical Materialism, International Publishers, N. Y., 1925,
pp, IX and XIII (authorized translation from the Third Russian edition).
10. John Spargo, Socialism, Macmillan, N. Y..London 1906, "The two leading American exponents of the theory, (historical materialism-s-ed.) Professor Seligman and Mr. Ghent, have expressed that conviction in very definite terms" p, 71. ("Historical materialism" has been the catchword of socialists and communists ever since it was postulated in America by Seligman. The Mr. Ghent mentioned in the above quote is W. J. Ghent, one of the founders of Fabian socialism in America in 1895.)
11. The British Fabian socialist connections of Alvin Johnson are dealt with in Helmes-Laski Letters, ed. Mark De Wolfe Howe, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1953~ pp. 1396, 1398. Johnson was editor of the Fabian magazine The New Republic and had been director of the leftist New School for Social Research. He taught as a professor of social science in numerous universities throughout the United States including Cornell, Stanford, Columbia and the University of Chicago. (Ref. Who's Who, Vol. 16, 1930-31, p. 1210.)
Max Lerner's extensive leftist record was dealt with in this work previously.
12 Sister M. Margaret Patricia McCarran, Fabianism in the United States, (unpublished manuscript) pp, LX, LXI, and Margaret Cole, The Story 0/ Fabian Socialism, Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 1961. The London School of Economics was set up as a result of the legacy established in the will of one Henry Hutchinson, who had joined the Fabian Socialist Society in 1890, and who committed suicide in 1894. This money was used by Sydney Webb, the leading Fabian socialist, to organize the London School of Economics, which became a part of the University of London aggregation. Margaret Cole wrote:
"Webb, accordingly, wrote out, as a kind of appendage to the Hutchinson will, a paper of his own stating what he considered its provisions could mean in practice, including:
'the promotion . . . of all or any of the objects for the time being of the said Society, or in or towards the promotion of the study of Socialism, Economics or of any other branch or branches of Social Science or Political Science or in or towards the propagation or advocacy whether by lectures pamphlets hooks or otherwise of socialistic or economic or political teaching or in or towards the promotion of any educational social or philanthropic object' ". p.69
13 New School Bulletin, The Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science, New School for Social Research, N. Y., 1954-55, p. 5.
14 ibid. p. 5
15. Dr. James P. Warbasse, at a meeting of the Intercollegiate Socialist Society, Intercollegiate Socialist, p, 14, article on Labor Party.
16 John Dewey, Individualism, Old and New, N. Y., 1930, p. 119, quoted in Science and Society (communist-c-ed.) Summer, 1939, p. 293. John Dewey, known all the architect of Progressive Education in the United States, was a life.long socialist. In the light of that fact the nature of his so-called "progressive" measures should be reexamined, since his primary attitudes were governed by a desire to bring about socialism in the United States and the rest of the world. To a socialist everything must be bent and made to fit into his final goal, i.e., the elimination of the system of free enterprise and the institution of government owned and controlled means of production.
17 Garet Garrett, The People's Pottage, Caxton Press, Caldwell, Idaho, p. 19.
18 ibid, p. 22
19 Chambers, Witness, p. 741
20 The Americana, edited by Frederick Conyers Beach, 1904-1906 Vol. XIII, see "Franklin Benjamin Sanborn". Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, Vol. 12, p. 322, see section relating to the Concord School of Philosophy and its influence on John Dewey.
21 Albion W. Small, Fifty Years of Sociology in the United States, American Journal of Sociology May, 1916, p. 729.
22 ibid, p. 730.
23 Daniel Coit Gilman was the stormy petrel of the educational world, and had resigned from the newly organized University of California in 1872, because of a clash with the State Legislature on social questions. He was appointed as President of Johns Hopkins University on its formation in 1876. Ref. Columbia Encyclopedia, p. TI7. The architects of Fabian socialism, Beatrice and Sidney Wehb, counseled with Daniel Ciot Gilman during their missionary trip for socialism in America in 1898. (See Beatrice Webb's 4merican Diary, 1898, p. 43.
24 Socialist Party of America, Shannon, p. 209.
25 Who's Who, 1918-19, Vol. X.
26 Max Lerner, America as a Civilization, Simon & Shuster, N. Y. 1961, "Asked to submit plans for Johns Hopkins, Gilman placed before his trustees the idea of starting not with a college program but with a graduate school and research center; he sent his faculty to train in the great universities of Germany, and they came back with their booty of European techniques in science, medicine and historical research." pp. 741-742. (When a Fabian type socialist such as Max Lerner places such importance on the fact that Gilman deliberately trained his faculty in a German socialistic atmosphere then one can realize the great significance that these nets had in the development of socialistic thought and action in the United States--ed.)
27. E. A. Ross, Social Psychology, Macmillan Co., N. Y., 1908, advertisement of books listed at the end of this volume.
Also see: Who's Who, 1918·19, p. 647.
E, A. Ross--long time socialist. Communist front associations of Ross are too many and too lengthy for insertion here.
Richard T. Ely: Professor Ely "more than any other man ... he was identified with the formation of the American Economic Association," Ref.: Bliss, Encyclopedia oj Social Reform, Funk & Wagnall, 1897, N. Y., N. Y. and London, p. 555.
Ely belonged to Christian Social Union, which has been characterized "as the new Christian Socialism", ibid, p. 261.
John Spargo, New Encyclopedia of Social Reform, Bliss, 1908, p, 1157 "socialist" and member of the "National Committee of the Socialist Party" and author of Socialism: A Study arid Interpretation of Socialist Plans.
Jane Addams: This Little Band of Prophets, Freernantle, p. 70. In respect to Fabianism in the U.S.A., Jane Addams "heartily endorsed it." (884).
Thomas Kirkup: History of Socialism, Adam & Charles Black, London, 1913, p, 459. In the concluding paragraph of his book, he stales: "In rational socialism we may therefore see a long and widening avenue of progress, along which the improvement of mankind may be continued in a peaceful and gradual, yet most hopeful, sure, and effective way."
John A. Hobson: This Little Band of Prophets, Freemantle, Described as a British Fabian socialist, p, 220. .
Robert Hunter: Represented the American Socialist Movement at international socialist conferences. Ref.: Socialist Party of America, Shannon, p. 68.
Among those who taught for the American Socialist Society in the Rand School for Social Science were: Lester F. Ward, Franklin H. Giddings, ami Charles A. Zuehlin, Ref.: The Case 0/ the Rand' School, published by Rand School of) Social: Science, New York City, July 26, 1919, p. 13.
28 Ref.; H. W. Laidler, Ten Years 0/ I.S.S. Progress, Intercollegiate Socialist, Dec.- Jan. 1915-16, p. 2l.
29 Intercollegiate Socialist, Report by James P. Warbasse, 1919, p. 14.
30 Intercollegiate Socialist, Dec-Jan. 1915-16, Ten Years 0/ I.SS. Progress, by H. W. Laidler, p. 19.
31.The Macmillan Company lists facilities in New York, Boston, Chicago, Atlanta, Dallas and San Francisco, in the United States; their Canadian subsidiary is located in Toronto; their British division is located in London, and they have interests in Calcutta and Bombay in India.
32 The editors were Charles A. Dana and George Ripley, both early socialists of the Brook Farm group. Dana was II. long-time friend of Karl Marx and other European revolutionary socialists.
33 In the Veritas Foundation Library the following publishing firms were found to have issued topics or authors of a socialistic nature: Appleton & Co. (published the American Cyclopedia 1858·63 under the direction of Charles A. Dana and George Ripley, early American socialists.) Appleton-Century, Barnes & Noble (College Outline Series), Beacon Press, AlbertCharles Boni, Book Find Club, Brentanno's, Century. Covici Fried, John Day Co., Dial Press, Dodd Mead & Co., Doubleday Doran, E. P. Dutton, Funk & Wagnall 1893-1908, Harcourt Brace, Harper Bros., Henry Holt, Houghton Mifflin Co., Allred Knopf, Horace Liveright, Longemans Green & Co., Macmillan Co., Mentor Books (published by New American Library of World Literature), McGraw Hill (Keynesian textbooks), Modem Age Books, Modem Library (Random Housel, Frederick A. Praeger, Random House (Modem Library), Charles Scribner & Sons, Simon & Schuster, Viking Press, World Publishing.
34 Charles Lee, The Hidden Public - The Story 0/ the Book 0/ the Month Club, Doubleday, New York, 1958, p, Ll,
37 ibid, p, 30.
38 ibid, p. 107.
39 The leftist records of Henry Seidel Canby, Dorothy Canfield Fisher, Heywood Broun, William Allen White, Clifton Fadiman, John Mason Brown, Christopher Morley and William Rose Benet have been checked in Appendix-Part IX Special Committee on Uri-American Activities House of Representatives Seventy-Eighth Congress; Reports of Un-American activities in California, Eighth Report 1955; Special Committee to investigate communist activities in the United States of the House of Representatives Seventy-first Congress, 1930; Report of the Joint Legislative Committee investigating seditious activities April 4, 1920, in the Senate of the State of New York, Part I, Volumes I and II. (Although the references used are those of communist and communist front activities the individuals involved in most cases are leftists of the Fabian socialist type. Most affiliations with communist fronts were the result of a united front agreement between socialists and communists at the time.)
40 The Hidden: Public, Lee, pp. 120, 121.
41 Owned by Doubleday.
42 This estimate is based upon the fact that over 200 million dollars worth of books have been distributed by the Book-of-the-Month Club as bonus books. Books paid for at the full price are estimated to have exceeded this amount. Thus, the Book-of-theMonth Club total runs in the neighborhood of 500 miJIion dollars. Since it has been stated that "the Guild has the larger circulation" this would mean that over one billion dollars worth of books have been distributed by the two enterprises. (See The Hidden Public, Lee, passim, also pp. 11, 214.)
43 Shannon, Socialist Party of America, p. 122; see also The Hidden Public, Lee, p. 5O.