Thursday, November 8, 2018


by Marshall Thomas 
This work is a review of literature on the subject of war crimes pertaining to the use of microwave weapons against civilians. Contributing authors have been given credit through footnotes and in the bibliography. I wish to express my gratitude and appreciation for their invaluable contributions to understanding these ongoing crimes against humanity.

War Crimes Phoenix Program 
The Phoenix Program, created by the CIA in 1967, was aimed at "neutralizing"—through assassination, kidnapping, and torture, the civilian infrastructure that supported the Viet Cong insurgency in South Vietnam. It was a terrifying "final solution" that violated the Geneva Conventions. The Phoenix Program's civilian targets of assassination were VC tax collectors, supply officers, political cadre, local military officials, and suspected sympathizers. 
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Faulty intelligence often led to the murder of innocent civilians, rival Vietnamese would report their enemies as "VC" in order for US troops to kill them. In 1971, William Colby, head of CIA in Vietnam, testified the number killed was 20,857. South Vietnamese government figures were 40,994 dead. CIA officer Ted Shackley managed (600 military and (40-50) CIA liaison officers) who were working with South Vietnamese officers in 44 provinces. Ted Shackley and Robert Komer played key roles in recruiting Phoenix Program personnel. Many Covert Action officers were Cuban refugees from the Bay of Pigs fiasco. They ran the CIA's Counter-Terror (CT) Teams, which were in fact assassination squads. 
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Colby, Komer, and Shackley reported to DCI Richard Helms and the White House. From the beginning the Phoenix Program was conceived by the White House and supported by the CIA. Phoenix called for "neutralizing" 1800 targets a month. About one third of VC targeted for arrest were summarily executed. Green Berets and Navy SEALs would assassinate suspected VC sympathizers or cadres, as well as South Vietnamese collaborators and double agents. 

In 1982 an Ex-Phoenix operative revealed that sometimes orders were given to kill U.S. military personnel who were considered security risks. He suspects the orders came not from "division", but from a higher authority such as the CIA or the Office of Naval Intelligence. 

The following is testimony of Vincent Okamoto, combat officer (Lieutenant) in Vietnam in 1968, and recipient of Distinguished Service Cross, the second highest award conferred by the US Army. Wounded 3 times. "The problem was, how do you find the people on the blacklist? It's not like you had their address and telephone number. The normal procedure would be to go into a village and just grab someone and say, 'Where's Nguyen so-and-so?' Half the time the people were so afraid they would say anything. Then a Phoenix team would take the informant, put a sandbag over his head, poke out two holes so he could see, put commo wire around his neck like a long leash, and walk him through the village and say, 'When we go by Nguyen's house scratch your head.' Then that night Phoenix would come back, knock on the door, and say, 'April Fool, motherfucker.' Whoever answered the door would get wasted. As far as they were concerned whoever answered was a Communist, including family members. Sometimes they'd come back to camp with ears to prove that they killed people."

Penetrations into the Viet Cong Infrastructure was accomplished by blackmailing or terrorizing a member of a targeted individual's family to gathering information. Every Vietnamese 15 and over had to register and carry identity cards, these records were computerized and eventually it evolved into a highly computerized and statistical means of generating 1800 names a month for the target list, coordinating the information on suspects from 30,000 plus informants. When the strategic Hamlet program failed, CIA and military intelligence concentrated on the Phoenix Program, a terror campaign aimed at the civilian population. Instead of winning hearts and minds, using the threat of assassination and a state of terror to defeat the NV. Many non-political Vietnamese were arrested and tortured and in effect forced into the resistance army. Phoenix Program architect Robert Komer, after leaving the Pentagon said, "I would have done a lot of things differently and been more cautious about getting us involved." He called the war "a strategic disaster which cost us 57,000 lives and a half trillion dollars." 

New Phoenix USA
The Vietnam War was the formative experience for a generation of CIA and military intelligence personnel involved in the Phoenix Program. 

They viewed the military defeat in Vietnam as a betrayal on the home front, a loss of will by domestic political enemies, not a military failure against a nationalist revolution fought as a guerilla war. 

The Phoenix Program, assassinating suspected VC sympathizers in a systematic manner, worked well and is the blueprint for the current black op targeting thousands of loyal Americans using state of the art microwave (MW) and radio frequency radiation (RFR) weapons. 

The motivation to suppress domestic dissidents and to assassinate loyal American opposition stems from the perception of dissent against the war as treason. This philosophy is stated very clearly in the MindWar paper written by NSA General Aquino. 

The DOD has a huge stake in futuristic technology that kills by ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, leaving little or no trace. The indiscriminate killing of the Phoenix Program continues on American soil. 

The terms soft kill, slow kill and silent kill refer to the new way of killing the enemy in conflicts short of war and the small wars of the future. 

The counterinsurgency doctrine has now been applied to the home front, so that the perceived betrayal of the military in Vietnam will not be repeated. 

The generation of CIA and military intelligence led by Shackley, Helms, and Casey have built the perfect beast, using selective assassination that leaves no trace. The ability to cull the human herd with Silent Kill technology allows a few personalities to remake the entire society in their own image. 

Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) technology kills with ionizing and non-ionizing radiation or slowly drives the target crazy with silent sound, similar to CIA MKULTRA psychiatrist Ewen Cameron psychic driving technique used to break down the targets personality. 

The new buzzwords at the Pentagon are silent kill, synthetic telepathy and psychotronics. Another means of attack on targets is the Smirnov patent that uses subliminal suggestion to manipulate human behavior. This patent was purchased by the remote viewing company Psi Tech Corporation. Military intelligence officers involved in developing these "non-lethal weapons" also control Psi Tech. 
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Emotional manipulation is accomplished using Dr. Michael Persinger's work to remotely project emotional states that the brain entrains or locks onto and emulates. One can broadcast rage or fear at an individual target to manipulate and control them. As if these methods were not enough to torture and murder people, add to this nightmarish toolbox, active gang stalking. 

CIA created cults and other cause-oriented groups are used to induce further trauma in the target by actively harassing them in public in a neutralization technique described in counterintelligence operations manuals that are aimed at enemy agents. 

In the race to develop a new weapon system it has always been necessary to test it on human beings. Perfecting the latest weapons designed to kill slowly and silently as well as perfecting the process of controlling the human mind are no different. Once the weaponry has been perfected on these few thousand people the same techniques will be applied en mass to the general population, and then to humanity as a whole. 

It is probable that the detention and debriefing of the heads of the DIA, NSA, INSCOM, and CIA, (Maples, Alexander, Lacquement, Hayden) and their replacement with civilian reformers will end the current war crimes. 

Behavior Modification: 
Col. John B. Alexander stated in an interview with the Washington Post in 2007, …The military and intelligence agencies were still scared by the excesses of MK-ULTRA, the infamous CIA program that involved, in part, slipping LSD to unsuspecting victims. "Until recently, anything that smacked of mind control was extremely dangerous" because Congress would simply take the money away, he said. Alexander acknowledged that "there were some abuses that took place," but added that, on the whole, "I would argue we threw the baby out with the bath water." But September 11, 2001, changed the mood in Washington, and some in the national security community are again expressing interest in mind control, particularly a younger generation of officials who weren't around for MK-ULTRA. 

"It's interesting, that it's coming back," Alexander observed. While Alexander scoffs at the notion that he is somehow part of an elaborate plot to control people's minds, he acknowledges support for learning how to tap into a potential enemy's brain. He gives as an example the possible use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, for lie detection. "Brain mapping" with fMRI theoretically could allow interrogators to know when someone is lying by watching for activity in particular parts of the brain. For interrogating terrorists, fMRI could come in handy. 

Alexander also is intrigued by the possibility of using electronic means to modify behavior. The dilemma of the war on terrorism, he notes, is that it never ends. So what do you do with enemies, such as those at Guantanamo: keep them there forever? That's impractical. Behavior modification could be an alternative, he says. "Maybe I can fix you, or electronically neuter you, so it's safe to release you into society, so you won't come back and kill me," Alexander says. It's only a matter of time before technology allows that scenario to come true, he continues. "We're now getting to where we can do that." "Where does that fall in the ethics spectrum? That's a really tough question."  

History of Government 
Human Experimentation 
In order to understand the current state sponsored human experimentation program using microwave weapons against civilians it is necessary to begin with previous programs that began in the early 1900’s, and continued to the present day. 

Eugenics Movement: 
Eugenics originated in England with the work of Francis Galton who studied hereditary traits in families and began the nature versus nurture debate and its ultimate focus on twins to answer the question of what was more powerful heredity or environment. 

He proposed positive Eugenics, encouraging the reproduction of eminent men and families. He cautioned against drawing premature and harmful conclusions from his work, but like his cousin, Charles Darwin, his work was used as justification for some of the greatest crimes in history. 

Negative Eugenics is the application of means to discourage the breeding of the ―unfit‖, including anti-race mixing marriage laws, segregation (institutionalization), sterilization, and euthanasia. 

Eugenics is not a true science and though it is dressed up in mathematics to give it legitimacy it has more in common with the quack science of Phrenology. Phrenology was the study of the head size and shape to determine intelligence and character. 

The industrial age had thrown millions of people off the farm and into the city to work in low paying factory jobs. The sheer scale of the problems of mental illness, alcoholism and crime seemed overwhelming. Added to this, millions of Eastern Europeans and Italians came to America and made the native  population uneasy. They were viewed as bad stock compared to the more ―Nordic types‖ that made up earlier waves of immigration from Western Europe. 

Suggestions for solving these problems took the form of segregation, sterilization, and mass euthanasia, however the Eugenics movement leaders were smart enough to realize that America was not prepared for euthanasia. 

The Eugenics movement took shape in America with the founding of the Eugenics Recording Office at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in 1910 by Charles Davenport with money from the Carnegie Institution. The ERO compiled millions of files on ordinary Americans. 

The adherents of Eugenics included some of the most influential doctors and scientists of the era, including Alexander Graham Bell, Luther Burbank, W.M. Kellogg, David Starr Jordan, the President of Stanford University, William Welch of Johns Hopkins University. Professors at Harvard, Columbia, Yale, and other universities taught 375 courses on Eugenics. 

The hypothesis that mental illness, crime, and poverty were inherited factors and could be cured through negative Eugenics had by the 1920‘s been accepted by American Society as fact. Contests for Fitter family were common at state fairs and Eugenics publications and ideas were widespread. 

This could not have been possible without the hard work of many eminent men and the application of large amounts of money. The great fortunes of The Carnegie Institution, The Rockefeller Foundation, Harriman family, Ford foundation, Milbank Memorial Fund, and others funded the ERO, The American Eugenics Society, The American Eugenics Party and others. The American Eugenics movement actively encouraged foreign countries to participate, concentrating most heavily on Germany. The opening address of the Second International Congress of Eugenics in 1921 was repeated in German.

Only 3,000 people had been forcibly sterilized by the time the famous case of Buck vs. Bell reached the Supreme Court. Carrie Buck was a 17 year old girl who became pregnant out of wedlock in 1920‘s Virginia. She was ostracized by her community and her baby Vivian Buck, was reported to the ERO as appearing not normal. Carrie and her mother‘s files were examined, both had previously been classified as MORONS and court proceedings were begun to have Carrie forcibly sterilized without examination. 

Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes delivered the verdict of the court in 1927. “It is better for all the world, if instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind. The principle that sustains compulsory vaccination is broad enough to cover cutting the Fallopian tubes. Jacobson v. Massachusetts, 197 U.S. 11, 25 S. Ct. 358, 3 Ann. Cas. 765. Three generations of imbeciles are enough.” 

This decision validated Virginia‘s Eugenical Sterilization Act and set in motion the forced sterilization of 30-60k American citizens. Eventually similar laws were passed in 34 other states. Carrie Buck was not a promiscuous and disruptive moronic slut as she had been portrayed at trial by the testimony of her school superintendent. She had been raped by her foster family‘s son. She had been on the honor roll. Her forcible sterilization was a result of lies, incorrect diagnosis, and a plot to pass the Virginia Law. 

A review of the case uncovered a conspiracy between Carrie‘s defense lawyer and the Colony of Virginia to ensure the constitutionality of Virginia‘s new law. The state was trying to save money by sterilizing the growing population at its mental health facilities. The greatest impact of Buck vs. Bell was in Germany. In 1933 the Nazi government adopted the Prevention of Hereditarily Ill Offspring Act which was based on Buck vs. Bell and led to the forced sterilization of 375,000 people and the banning of marriage and sexual relations between Germans and Jews
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The Rockefeller Foundation funded the Eugenicists at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute including the work of Ernst Rudin, a leading psychiatrist who became an architect and prime director of the murderous medical experimentation programs conducted on thousands of Jews, Gypsies, and others. 
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American money also endowed the work of Otmar Freiherr von Verchuer who headed the Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics. He wrote in his Eugenics Journal that ―Germany‘s war would yield a total solution to the Jewish Problem.‖ Verschuer had a longtime assistant. His name was Josef Mengele. 

On May 30, 1943, Mengele arrived at Auschwitz. Verschuer notified the German Research Society, "My assistant, Dr. Josef Mengele (M.D., Ph.D.) joined me in this branch of research. He is presently employed as Hauptsturmführer (captain) and camp physician in the Auschwitz concentration camp. Anthropological testing of the most diverse racial groups in this concentration camp is being carried out with permission of the SS Reichsführer (Himmler)." 

Mengele began searching the boxcar arrivals for twins. When he found them, he performed beastly experiments, scrupulously wrote up the reports and sent the paperwork back to Verschuer's institute for evaluation. Often, cadavers, eyes and other body parts were also dispatched to Berlin's eugenic institutes. Several doctors who had been sent to Auschwitz for aiding Jews were forced to work as his assistants and described him thus…

His experiments and observations were carried out in an abnormal fashion. When he made transfusions he purposely used incorrect blood types. He would inject substances and then ignore the results. He did what he pleased and conducted his experiments like a mad amateur. He was not a savant. He had the mania of a collector. He was also fascinated with gypsies and dwarfs as human specimens. His experiments, lacking scientific value, were no more than foolish playing and all his activities were full of contradiction. In other words, he was a hack with an MD and a Ph.D. in Eugenics, a quack science. 

The toll of Eugenics Laws would fall heavily on non-Jewish Germans as well. The chronology of events is instructive. First patients in German mental facilities were sterilized, then it was decided to gas them. CO gas was used in the beginning but was discarded in favor of Zyklon B gas for reasons of economy and effectiveness. Next all the residents of the old age homes in Germany were either starved, given lethal injection, or gassed and then cremated. Finally German citizens who had physical disabilities, many quite mild or correctable, were euthanized. Between 50,000 and 100,000 were eventually killed. 

The program was referred to as a mercy death however nothing could be farther from the truth. Witnesses said that the floor, walls, and even ceiling of the gas chamber were stained with blood, vomit, urine and feces. At the center of the room would be an enormous pile of bodies in the general shape of a pyramid as people struggled to climb on top of each other to reach the last remaining breathable air near the ceiling. 

American Eugenics movement leaders went underground and changed the name of their organizations. The lifelong friendships between people like Verschuer and the leading members of the American Eugenics Movement continued even after the Holocaust. He and many others were never punished and remained influential men in society. Their portraits hang in many major universities, both in Germany and America. The names of their victims are mostly lost to history. They included the powerless, people who couldn't fight back. Carrie Buck‘s daughter died at the age of 8 years old due to an illness. In her short school career she had made the honor roll. 

Human Radiation studies: 
In December 1939 as Europe was poised on the brink of war, two German radio chemists split the uranium atom in their Berlin laboratory. They confided the results to Lise Meitner and Otto Fritsch who calculated the released energy at 200 million electron volts for one atom. The significance of the event was understood immediately in scientific communities in all nations. Virtually unlimited energy could be produced in a controlled reaction and an uncontrolled reaction would yield an explosive of incredible power. The University of California at Berkeley was where plutonium 238 half life 86 years and plutonium 239 half life 24,000 years were first created. Seaborg, Segre and McMillan used cyclotrons to produce one microgram of plutonium. After months of work their product could be detected but was too small to be seen. 

Plutonium was described as a crazy metal, small amounts spontaneously combust in air so it must be handled in an environment free of oxygen. Depending on the chemical form it might be blue, green, purple, yellow, red, brown or pink. Seaborg said ―under some conditions it might be brittle like glass or soft like lead. It will disintegrate at room temperature, undergoing five phase changes between room temperature and the melting point. It is fiendishly toxic, even in small amounts. 

Robley Evans who studied women exposed on the job to radium wrote that as little two micrograms, two millionths of a gram, was fatal. Ernest Lawrence told government officials that plutonium 239 ―could be used to make a super bomb. It was 1941 and the United States would be in the war in a matter of months. 

Albert Einstein, Leo Szilard, and Arthur Compton were instrumental in persuading FDR to study the feasibility of building a nuclear bomb. The Manhattan Project was the secret effort to build the atomic bomb. It was a gamble that represented several billion dollars and a significant percentage of the war time budget. 

The Oak Ridge plant in Tennessee was 56,000 acres devoted to making uranium-235 and the Hanford Washington site made plutonium. These facilities had taken the bench scale process and increased it a billion fold. General Leslie Groves was tapped to head the massive project. He appointed Robert Oppenheimer to be in charge of the design, construction, and testing of the weapon. Los Alamos, New Mexico was chosen as the site of the facility to build and test such a weapon. 
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Quantum Physics was a science that had been invented by twenty year olds and the staff Oppenheimer assembled for the Manhattan Project reflected that. The bomb might not work and if the high explosive failed to ignite the fission reaction $2.5 billion dollars (1945) worth of plutonium would be scattered across the Jimenez Mountains. Jumbo was the largest fabricated object ever built, designed to contain the plutonium if ignition failed. At dawn on July 16, 1945 the Trinity site witnessed the detonation of the device code named Gadget. 

The remaining two devices, named Little Boy and Fat Man, were used on Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9th killing approximately 200,000 people. WWII terror bombing of civilians began with the London Blitz killing 30,000 people and culminated in the firebombing of Dresden Germany and Tokyo. Napalm was used in 1,000 plane raids that incinerated approximately 200,000 people. 

The atomic bomb did not add to the scale of mass murder of civilian populations, but it certainly made it more efficient. Many of the scientists were appalled at the result, some had urged a demonstration shot. The scientists declared publicly that the U.S. possessed only a few years head start before another nation followed suit. Many of the scientists and some generals advocated international control and the eventual banning of nuclear weapons. 

Those that tried to head off a nuclear arms race in the end failed as events and personalities took on a momentum of their own. Edward Teller advocated the superheavy, the Hydrogen bomb. Oppenheimer objected to the development of the Hydrogen bomb and stated that these were genocidal weapons. He was promptly replaced. Teller assumed the scientific leadership of the weapons program and remained influential for the entire Cold War. 

The largest Hydrogen bomb ever tested by the U.S. was around 40 megatons, 4,000 times more powerful than the 10 kiloton Hiroshima bomb. The nuclear arms race that followed has resulted in the doctrine of MAD, mutually assured destruction. If either the US or USSR launch any or all of their half of the 20,000 nuclear weapons they have aimed at each other, then they can rest assured that they too would be completely destroyed in a retaliatory strike. 
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The nuclear arms race consumed much of the wealth of the US leaving the civilian population living in very real fear that the world could end in a matter of minutes. Nuclear testing began in the Pacific and the continental US. Residents of the Marshall Islands were forcibly relocated and dozens of devices were tested there, some so enormous they obliterated large parts of the islands. 

Captured and obsolete ships were placed in the blast zone with test animals on board. After the detonations thousands of observers and military moved near ground zero to decontaminate equipment. The military brass wanted to know how equipment and men would fare in a nuclear war. At what point are the ships too hot or the men too poisoned to continue to fight. The Air Force sent planes into radioactive clouds that registered 800 rad per hour or higher adopting lead helmets and special shielding in an effort to protect the pilots. 

The Army placed troops in trenches 1,000 yards from the blast and immediately after the explosion walked them on line through ground zero in an effort to prepare them psychologically for fighting with nuclear weapons. General James Cooney was the foremost advocate of testing and took authority away from the AEC Atomic Energy Commission for the responsibility of setting exposure limits on troops. Scientists were allowed exposure of no more than 3 rad for a 13 week period while limits for military personnel were officially set at 5 rad per test. 

The badges given to troops to wear measured only external beta radiation and were not used extensively. The scientists working for the AEC wore protective gear while the troops did not. The health effects of radiation were fairly well known to the scientists involved due to their animal studies, industrial accidents, and the very public deaths of Madame Curie and others. By the 1920‘s it was known that hundreds of the early pioneers in radiation studies were dead. [I do not know what more can be said about the denial of this subject that man continues to live under,you actually have people suggesting that nuclear reaction is not real.That IS TRUE as it is found in nature,but we are not dealing with something natural here,we are dealing with manipulation of Nature by Man,and man tends toward destruction D.C]

A single dose of 350 rad was the human LD-50, the dose that caused death to half those exposed. One millionth of a gram, once inside the human body could cause death. A nuclear explosion immediately produces Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and X-ray radiation. Hundreds of different radioactive isotopic particles are formed as residual contamination that is absorbed into different body tissues with varying degrees of longevity and toxicity. 

One example is radioiodine that collects in the thyroid. This kaleidoscope of sources make it difficult to gauge what dose has been delivered and to what effect. Inhalation of a small particle of plutonium would collect in the bone marrow and emit energies on the order of 200 million electron volts. The normal energy level of the human cell is 10 electron volts, and under such an assault the cell either dies, becomes inoperable, or grows uncontrollably, in other words, cancer. 
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Arthur Compton and the other physicist knew what had happened to the earlier experimenters with radioactive materials. Compton chose Robert Stone in Berkeley and Joseph Hamilton at Chicago to research the biological aspects. The scientists who conducted these experiments were not from the inner sanctum trying to build the Bomb, they reported their findings to them. 
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Joseph Hamilton began to study radiation effects in rats in the summer of 1942. In 1943 the first human test subjects would be used without their knowledge or consent. All the experiments were conducted for the express purpose of answering the unknowns, how much radiation could kill a man? Could blood tests detect exposure? Are there treatments for exposure? Long before radiological warfare was used on enemy populations in war it was purposefully tested on American civilians. 

By 1945 the war was over but these questions remained unanswered. The experiments would have to continue for the next thirty years. Admiral James Cooney became the leading advocate for an experiment on 200 healthy ―volunteers‖ using up to 150 rad or more. Col. Shields Warren opposed the idea as did other civilian scientists. He argued that 200 was too small a number to base a study on, a real study would have to include 10,000 or more subjects. 

While this argument raged the School of Aviation Medicine in San Antonio, Texas quietly began to do the tests for the Air Force. Randolph Lee Clarke, the director of the MD Anderson, oversaw the first study irradiating sick cancer patients with hundreds of rads using TBI or total body irradiation. 

Human subjects were chosen with tumors that did not respond to treatment with radiation. Patients that would have been helped by radiation would have shown altered levels of blood cells, amino acids, enzymes, plasma proteins and lipids that would have clouded the results in the search for a biological dosimeter. 

Col. Shields Warren did not object to the use of cancer patients but many of these people were not very ill or had been misdiagnosed. At least two of the twenty people injected with plutonium had been misdiagnosed as having cancer when they did not. 

Many of the others were not cancer patients but suffered from illnesses such as scleroderma or Cushing‘s disease. These errors were repeated in the Total Body Irradiation experiments that were sponsored by the military. 

Many of the cancer patients had been well enough to work and live normally. After doses of 100 to 2,000 rad many died within days or weeks and had in fact been killed by radiation poisoning. Those that lived were often debilitated and in constant pain. 

Surprisingly or not, 34 Nazi scientists were employed at Randolph AFB in San Antonio and involved in these lethal experiments. These were just a few of the thousands of Nazi scientists who had secretly been smuggled into the US under operation ―Paperclip to help the US destroy the USSR. 
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Dr Hubertus Strughold was their intellectual and spiritual leader in radiation studies. He brought in Dr Herbert Gerstner who had used human subjects during the war to study at what point human hearing is completely destroyed due to explosions from shelling. He also used people to study the exact cause of death in cases of electrocution. He found that death resulted from a tremendous increase in blood pressure that forced blood from the peripheral vessels into the heart and abdominal cavity. These men had all experimented on Jews, gypsies, intellectuals, homosexuals, allied pow‘s, and others and were now in San Antonio doing lethal TBI experiments on American citizens for the military. 

Gerstner and Eugene Saenger collaborated on the TBI studies, Gerstner did the first one and Saenger did the last one. The locations included MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Sloan-Kettering in New York, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, and Oak Ridge Tennessee between the years 1951 and 1974 studying about 500 patients. The TBI experiments were only a subset of the radiation experiments on human subjects that included plutonium injections, radioactive isotope studies, and many others. 

Vanderbilt University Hospital Prenatal Clinic hosted 850 pregnant women to a secret study using radioactive isotopes iron-55 and iron-59. 

The pregnant women were given a cocktail and told it was vitamins for their unborn child. Free health care was the lure used on the economically disadvantaged women. 

Helen Hutchison was 6 months pregnant and visited the clinic in July, 1946 seeking treatment for nausea. 

She was given a cocktail by the doctor and told to drink it, that it would make her feel better. 

Several months after the birth of her daughter her hair fell out and she developed blisters, anemia, and later had life threatening complications after several miscarriages. 

Her daughter Barbara was always tired as a child, developed an immune system disorder and skin cancer. 

Many of the mothers and children exposed to radioactive iron developed strange afflictions, rashes, anemia, blood disorders, and cancer. 

Paul Hahn, the principle investigator in the study, was a protégé of Stafford Warren and had worked with Robly Evans. 

Hahn wrote that iron-55 with a half life of 5 years was too hazardous to be given to humans and had no therapeutic value, yet he used it in this study which was partially funded by the Rockefeller Foundation. 

Helen Hutchison‘s husband had landed in Europe on D-Day, and had personally helped liberate Buchenwald concentration camp. The Nazi doctors who worked in the camp may have been some of the very men who participated in the radiation experiment on his wife and unborn child. 

One study conducted at the Fernald State School in Waltham, Massachusetts used radioactive iron and calcium secretly given to 74 orphans in their oatmeal using the ruse of a nutrition study. 

Robley Evans produced the radioactive isotopes in the MIT cyclotron and supervised the experiment. 

The lure used by the MIT scientists was membership in a science club that went on school outings to baseball games and even Christmas parties at the MIT faculty club. 

The scientists may not have believed that the amount of radiation involved was harmful, but they would not have allowed this experiment to be conducted on their own families. 

At Washington State Penitentiary and Oregon State Prison about 200 prisoners had their testicles irradiated with 8 to 600 rads with the lure of a little money and extra privileges. 

Carl Heller, one of the world‘s leading endocrinologists, and his protégé C. Alvin Paulsen ran the two studies from 1963 until 1971. 

These and similar experiments on thousands of people continued for 30 years in the vain search for a biological dosimeter. 

The identities and ultimate fates of the test subjects will never be known, most going to their graves never knowing they had been used as human guinea pigs by their government. 

Elmer Allen was designated experimental test subject CAL-13. On July 18, 1947 in a San Francisco Hospital he was injected with plutonium in the left leg. Three days later the leg was amputated at mid thigh. 

Elmer was a porter for the Pullman Company who injured his leg while stepping off a train. He was diagnosed with a fracture that developed into a cyst. The first test for cancer was negative, a second test indicated cancer. Unable to work after the amputation, he was forced to return to Italy, Texas with his wife and three children. 

His wife recalled that he began having epileptic seizures, ―he would chew the spoon to pieces, his tongue tool. Elmer began drinking heavily and told his best friend that he had been used as a guinea pig, but no one not even his family doctor believed him. 

The doctor later diagnosed him as a paranoid schizophrenic. 

During an effort to collect the bodies of the people injected with plutonium it was discovered to their amazement that 4 of them were still alive. In 1973 Austin Blues, from the Center for Human Radiobiology wrote to Elmer and asked him to be in a metabolism study. He and his wife were brought to Chicago and Elmer‘s urine and feces were collected for two weeks. The trip was paid for and Elmer received $140 plus $13 a day expenses. X-rays revealed bone damage consisted with radiation. 
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One year after Elmer‘s death the family was contacted by a reporter and learned that Elmer had been a human experimental subject and the family had been lied to for 44 years. Elmer Allen died in 1991, his head stone reads Elmer Allen 1911-1947 CAL-13 1947- 1991 One of America‘s nuclear guinea pigs.
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On 7 December 1993, Secretary of Energy Hazel O‘Leary ordered her department to open classified files covering projects that had involved the use of human beings as guinea pigs since WWII. A major project was initiated to identify relevant documents. The index itself runs to 150 pages. 

The following is testimony from Elmer Allen‘s granddaughter before the President‘s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, March, 1995. 

I saw him as a depressing sight. Joyless, unanimated, with a damaged head and a broken spirit. 

During his lifetime, I saw him as a burden rather than as an asset to my grandmother, as she waited on him, pampered him. 

My mother, I recall, resented this treatment while she contended that he didn't do his share for the family. 

She recalled a life of living with a father who, when not on an alcoholic binge, suffered from frequent seizures which had to be endured by the rest of the family. 

My uncle, on the other hand, did not seem resentful, but I often felt he must have been disappointed in a father incapable of playing a simple bat and ball game or merely offering a positive life outlook. 

My grandmother said it wasn't always like this. She said my grandfather was once a vibrant and handsome Pullman porter, a hard worker who wanted only the best for his family. 

When I was younger, I liked to do puzzles from the newspaper, where you find words hidden among randomly-arranged letters. Since my grandfather spent most of his time sitting alone, he would sometimes complete these puzzles -- we would sometimes complete these puzzles together, and eventually he began saving them in a neat stack and worked on completing them himself. 

In the springtime, I saw him take brown paper bags and make kites for the kids down the street. He once made a pen for my pet rabbit. 

He often talked of feelings in his missing leg and would shudder and make comments like "they must be working on my leg today". 

Years later, when I was home on breaks from college, the sight of my grandfather was horrible. He seemed useless and frail. He had lost more of life's joy. He seemed angry and sad. The pain was obvious, and he was sometimes furious and irate,mean and spiteful. 

I often have dreams about my grandfather. Before his death, I had a dream that he was in his old house in a coffin, open with the body in full view, dead, but alive somehow. After his death, another dream revealed him through a doorway, sitting in his wheelchair, looking feeble, yet in good spirits. He seemed to have a newfound joy, laughing and joking with male friends.

When Eileen Welsome presented my family with the fact that this man was indeed CAL-13, a human nuclear guinea pig, I wondered, could this be the reason, the origin, the root cause of this depressed character that I considered all along to be my grandfather. 

He lived over 40 years without a zest for life and with a pain I imagine was without equal. For I understand that the reality of life for the African American man of the 1940s was already a predetermined bleak one, dictated by the white man's tyrannical power of economics, politics, and, to a certain degree, basic freedom. 

Being born a black male was already a handicap, having a limited education was a further handicap. Then to add a physical handicap, due to being basically tricked into donating a body limb for science. With all of this in mind, I now understand how alcohol could relieve his reality, how depression and schizophrenia could take control of his life, how his feelings of hopelessness shattered such a promising future. 

In my most recent dream, I saw my grandfather with both legs, standing with confidence and strength of character I never saw in real life. He had a young appearance. He had a look of joy on his face, and he seemed content. 

This statement is signed April D. Whitfield, granddaughter of Elmer Allen, March 15th, 1995. 

Good afternoon. My daughter, April Whitfield, and the other survivors of Elmer Allen are determined that the truth about his plutonium injection and subsequent leg amputation be made a part of the public record.

We continue to be appalled by the apparent attempts at cover-ups, the inferences that the nature of the times, the 1940s, allowed scientists to conduct experiments without getting a patient's consent or without mentioning risks. We contend that my father was not an informed participant in the plutonium experiment. 

He was asked to sign his name several times while a patient at the University of California hospital in San Francisco. Why was he not asked to sign his name permitting scientists to inject him with plutonium? Why was his wife, who was college trained, not consulted in this matter? 

It is my hope that history will not be rewritten in committees who claim that they do not understand the actions of the scientists of the 1940s, those who claim that poor and disenfranchised African American men could not be hoodwinked by his doctors. 

I hope you will understand that just as Jewish fathers were placed in the ovens at Auschwitz, my father, Elmer Allen, was placed in his own private oven here in the United States of America. He was left there for 44 years, and the scientists occasionally took a peek inside to see if he was still alive. 

His survivors are pledged to tell the truth about this experiment for the next 50 or even 100 years, if necessary, so that future generations will have more than lies, half truths, and inconclusive reports, when attempting to recount this real life horror story. 

Thank you. I didn't know I had 10 minutes because I would have a lot more to say, but I thank you. 

While these secret experiments on thousands of Americans were going on in hospitals, the very public testing of nuclear weapons lasted from 1945 until the Test Ban treaty in 1963. Approximately 253 above ground tests were conducted in the Pacific and the US. In which nearly 400,000 military personnel took part. The external dose of beta radiation was measured by badges but these were not distributed in significant numbers. The badge did not measure the dose from other external particles such as Alpha, Gamma, or X-ray radiation, nor did it measure the ingestion of small particles that lodge in tissues and do continuous damage. 

Some of the troops felt immediate effects of radiation poisoning and developed lifelong complications while others became sick many years later. 

Bill Scott of Camarillo, California was a former army air force photographer who filmed some of the nuclear tests. According to Helena, his widow, ―Starting in 1955, Bill had nosebleeds, backaches, and coughing attacks, followed by vomiting, nausea, and upset stomach. His nosebleeds would last for days at a time. His teeth rapidly decayed and his feet became dry and scaly. In 1971, he was hospitalized for tests that found bone cancer that spread… rapidly and six months later he was gone. 

The Atomic Veterans Newsletter published the following statement. We were the victims of radiation experiments too. They exposed over 200,000 of us in over 200 atmospheric atomic and hydrogen bomb tests between 1945-1962. They deliberately bombed us with nuclear weapons and exposed us to deadly radioactivity to see how it would affect us and our equipment in nuclear warfare on land sea and air. 

They didn't need our informed consent because we were under military discipline. They devalued our lives too! They made us sterile! They crippled and killed our children! They made widows of our wives! Then denied repeatedly and publicly that there was ever any danger! 

Say the lie often enough and people will believe it. 

The third group of experimental human subjects are the Down Winders. This term refers to all the people exposed to radiation as a result of atmospheric testing. This group in essence comprises the entire US and in fact the entire world. Fallout from all 2,000 nuclear tests has deposited plutonium and other radioactive substances in the bodies of every human being on earth. At what point this experiment would prove fatal for all human life is unknown, but it is known that the human embryo is very vulnerable and that 1-2 rads is sufficient to produce deformity or death. 
Image result for images of radiation fallout maps
A quick look at radiation fallout maps show that this much radiation and more has been deposited across the continental US. Brenda Weaver lived most of her life seven miles from Hanford in an area known as Death Mile. Her family always seemed sick, she was developed thyroid disease at 12 and had an ovary removed at 14. Her brother had to be taken to the hospital with his eyes bleeding. In the early 1960‘s the sheep on her farm were born with missing legs, body parts, missing eyes. Her daughter, Jaime, was born in 1965 without eyes. Says Weaver, ―She has eyelashes and eyelids and tear ducts, but no eyes. It makes life difficult, it‘s hard to be blind. 

One study documents an unexplained increase in child mortality in the US that began shortly after testing began and decreased when atmospheric testing ended. 

It was acknowledged that a full scale nuclear exchange could have ended the Human Race but it is also possible that continued testing could eventually accomplish the same result. It should be noted that underground tests do vent radiation and that these tests are ongoing. The government held hearings in the 1990‘s and gave monetary compensation to several individuals injected with plutonium but not the hundreds of thousands of others injured in secret testing. 

The government's report is largely a whitewash, few victims were compensated, and no scientist or government employee was ever punished. The institutions involved all claimed ignorance or that the patients were fully informed, which was patently false in all cases. They have largely dodged their responsibility for participating in these acts. After the Advisory Committee's final report the children of the deceased plutonium victims had the following statements: 

I guess the government really won, all the culprits that planned and executed this thing got away with it. 

For them to say that a little apology is enough… is just beyond belief. 

I do feel betrayed and I feel abused by this committee‘s report.

Nuclear explosions produce plutonium oxide which is deposited in the lungs and lymph nodes and cannot be detected in the urine. The human experimental subjects were injected with plutonium citrate or nitrate which does show up in the urine. Thirty years of testing urine from those exposed in above ground tests has led to thousands of useless tests that show a false negative and false evidence that could be used to claim that these human exposures were low or non-existent. 

The search for a biological dosimeter lasted 30 years at dozens of labs costing many millions of dollars and produced no answer. Just how much radiation is a safe dose in the human body, and how to measure the amount the body has received is still unknown. 

The current answer in science is that there is no such thing as a safe dose of radiation. Mary Jean Connell , the only living victim of the plutonium experiments, when asked how she felt after receiving $100,000 dollars, merely replied 

I‘m afraid it‘s going to happen again, you know. 

Agent Orange: 
Image result for images of Operation Hades
Operation Hades was developed by the Pentagon‘s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) as a scheme to defoliate guerilla controlled areas of Vietnam. Objectives of defoliation were to destroy the triple canopy jungle that would flush out the guerilla fighter for conventional warfare, to clear the waterways and roads of areas of concealment for ambush, establish fields of fire around bases and to avoid infiltration and surprise attacks, and finally, to deny food to the enemy. 

The Vietnamese charged that defoliation was a weapon of mass destruction and ecocide that was not aimed at the fighter, but employed against the entire people and their environment, causing death by poisoning and starvation. C-47 aircraft sprayed 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D on 5,000 acres in 1962. 

In 1967 1.5 million acres of jungle and 221,000 acres of crop land were sprayed. 

Spraying ended in 1971 with 6 million acres covered with 107 million pounds of herbicide. 

About 10 to 15 percent of the total area sprayed was crop lands. 

Annual sales of herbicide increased from 12.5 million in 1966 to 79.8 million in 1969. Dow, Hercules, Monsanto, Diamond Shamrock, and seven other companies shared the war time profits. 

The name of the spray operation was changed to Operation Ranch Hand but the insignia patch retained the satanic symbol of a devil with a pitch fork. 

During WWII the University of Chicago studied chlorophenols for their affect on plant metabolism. A small application will promote rapid growth while a larger dose will make the plant grow so fast it literally explodes and dies. 

The special mixture of Agent Orange used in Vietnam consisted of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D in equal amounts. The mixture was thirteen times more concentrated than that used domestically. Agent White added Picloram which was made by DOW but so long lasting in the environment it was never allowed to be used on US soil. Agent Blue contained highly poisonous cacodylic acid and was 54 percent arsenic. 

The affects of spraying 2500 acres and 1000 inhabitants were reported by a doctor in October 1964. 

At first the people felt sick and had some diarrhea, then difficulty breathing followed by low blood pressure; some cases had trouble with their optic nerve and went blind. Pregnant women gave birth to still born or premature children. Most of the affected cattle died from serious diarrhea, and river fish floated on the surface of the water belly-up, soon after the chemicals were spread.

Reports of human poisoning brought diplomatic pressure on the US from other nations to respond. The US State Dept replied in March 1966 stating, 

The herbicides used are non-toxic and not dangerous to man or animal life. The land is not affected for future use. 

The National Academy of Sciences received 80% of their money from the DOD and was considered an arm of the government. The elite organization determined that it was inconclusive whether Agent Orange caused human deaths and that it was important that the matter receive further scrutiny in the future to determine the question. In response Professors Pfeiffer and Orians from the University of Washington independently obtained funding and did a field study on their own in Vietnam at the height of the war. 

They reported on cases of illness in humans and animals living in sprayed areas, widespread ecological damage and permanent destruction of ancient forests, commercial timberlands and rubber tree cultures. In late 1969 the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS) formed a committee headed up by Mathew Meselson, a Harvard biologist with a mandate to study Agent Orange in Vietnam. 

Through their efforts LBJ received a petition with 5,000 signatures of scientists urging him to stop spraying on the grounds of establishing a dangerous precedent in chemical and biological warfare.

The Food and Drug Administration had finished a study in 1965 but the report was concealed. 

In 1969 the report was leaked to Meselson. It showed that in 1964, the prestigious Bionetics Research Laboratory tested industrial compounds for carcinogenic and fetus deforming affects in lab animals. The tests showed small doses of 2,4,5-T caused birth defects in rats and mice. 

The FDA, DOD and DOA knew about the report but no one else saw it. 

Image result for images of DOW Chemical
DOW Chemical had applied pressure to the FDA to bury the report. The strategy that DOW chemical used to combat the now public report was to claim that chemical impurities in the test batch were responsible for the alarming results. The contamination was an impurity produced during manufacture referred to as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzopara-dioxin, or simply Dioxin. 

The newly formed EPA issued a ban on the use of 2,4,5-T in the US and the military claimed they would use other agents for defoliation when available, then continued spraying Agent Orange. DOW claimed that Agent Orange normally contained none or a few parts per million of Dioxin. Domestic stocks tested at approx. 13 ppm Dioxin while the chemical used in Vietnam contained 47 ppm or higher. Scientific reports that showed evidence of harm were either ignored or actively suppressed while studies that were inconclusive were used by the government to justify continued spraying. [I submit that all the cancers pushed onto tobacco,actually have their origin in what these companies were spraying around the tobacco,and all the rest of our vegetables and lawns.That they are still doing it with Roundup is criminal DC]

Dioxin is the most toxic man made chemical on earth. FDA researcher Dr. Jacqueline Verrett proved that only 1 part per Trillion was sufficient to cause deformity in embryos and if it were diluted one million times it would still be as toxic to a fetus as thalidomide, using the same tests. There is no safe dose of dioxin, no matter how small. The agents 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D were shown to cause cancer in lab animals by themselves, without the dioxin present. 

DOW chemical agreed to a temporary halt in the use of 2,4,5-T but was fighting to protect the pervasive domestic use of 2,4-D. Dow was able to go to court and successfully fight the ban on 2,4,5-T and thus saved their lucrative sales in the American market as well as worldwide sales of both herbicides. 

The burden of scientific proof was successfully shifted from the manufacturer of the toxic chemicals onto the plaintiffs who  were forced to prove conclusively that dioxin and the herbicides caused disease and mutation in humans. 

Studies funded by industry showed 2,4,5-T without dioxin was safe while independent studies such as the Bionetics study showed that ―pure‖ 2,4,5-T without dioxin was mutagenic. 

The 1970 Meselson report carried the greatest weight in the scientific community because of its thoroughness‘. In one heavily sprayed province still births and miscarriages were disproportionately high. In Saigon there was an epidemic of spina bifida, a birth defect linked to Agent Orange. 

This prestigious report prompted congress in 1970 to fund a new study by the National Academy of Sciences which would be administered by the DOD. The result would again be inconclusive on the question of human illness and death. 

The Rand Corporation is a government think tank‖ that in 1967 estimated 325,000 Vietnamese villagers had been affected by spraying. Millions had been forcibly relocated by the spraying and bombing into Strategic Hamlets‖ or resettlement camps under US control. Strategic Hamlets had been designed to separate the civilian population from the guerilla fighters and deny them support in the field. 

The program had been a dismal failure as the hamlets themselves were infiltrated. When victory began to turn to stalemate and defeat, the defoliation operation was used as a means of punishment.[Disgusting...DC] 

The Rand study indicated that one answer to wars of liberation was to force farmers into urban centers. Conventional military victory and counter-insurgency techniques did not ensure victory. By driving the people off the land the spray program would not allow rural revolutionary movements to gather sufficient strength to succeed. Air Force General Curtis LeMay advocated using nuclear weapons to bomb the Vietnamese back to the stone age.[Insanity DC] 

This same psychology was the driving force behind the strategy to drive people off the land in order to achieve victory. The battle for hearts and minds had long been given up. 

Rand estimated that 88 percent of the villagers blamed the US for the destruction of their crops and 74 percent expressed outright hatred. 

Agent Orange was a used as a chemical warfare agent to drive the people into the cities and deny the enemy recruits and support. 

Industrial accidents with Agent Orange manufacture had occurred with some regularity since 1937. DOW was the site of the first such accident that poisoned plant workers and caused a primary symptom, chloracne. DOW refused to fund a company doctor‘s request to test the chemicals on lab animals. 

In 1949, 228 workers at the Monsanto plant in Nitro, West Virginia developed chloracne, severe pain in skeletal muscles, shortness of breath, intolerance to cold, swollen liver, loss of sensation in extremities, fatigue, irritability, insomnia, loss of libido, and vertigo. These symptoms are virtually identical to those of the Vietnam veterans. 

An accident in Germany in 1954 led to the identification of dioxin as the cause of illness and the results on its toxicity were made known with the publication of the results in scientific journals in 1957. 

In 1964 as the major phase of spraying was about to get underway an accident at a DOW facility led to an investigation that identified dioxin as the source of poisoning and illness. Results of the accident were not published but were communicated to the other manufacturers of the herbicide. 

1964 is the date at which it can be proved that DOW knew about the chemical toxicity of dioxin and suppressed this information.

DOW and the other producers COULD have known about dioxin decades before the war. The scientific and medical literature was clear by 1957 and DOW SHOULD have known about the toxicity. 

By 1964 DOW DID know about the health effects of dioxin and chose to conceal this information even though it knew US armed forces were spraying millions of Vietnamese people and 3 million GI‘s sent to fight for their country. 

Since the end of the war, science has continued to progress despite obstructions. Sweden showed that exposed workers had a much higher cancer mortality rate than unexposed workers. 

University of Wisconsin found that rats fed on a diet containing 5 ppt Dioxin, half developed malignancies. 

In Vietnam, a type of liver cancer that was unknown before Operation Ranch Hand is now the second most common type of cancer in the country. 

The Meselson report substantiated the affect of miscarriages and still births in Vietnam, but the 2,4,5-T poisoning of Alsea, Oregon was proof positive. 

In March 1979, the EPA ordered suspension of some uses of 2,4,5-T after studies of pregnant women in Alsea, Oregon linked increases in miscarriages to periods of defoliant spraying. 

These unnecessary events are the result of the vested interest industry has in the use of 2,4,5- trichlorophenol in consumer products. 

Manufacture of paper, adhesives, paints, varnish and lacquer incorporates dioxin contaminated chlorophenols. Today Dioxin is found by scientists in mother‘s milk and beef near sprayed range lands and forest woodlands. 

Nearly 3 million Americans served in Vietnam and many thousands of veterans and their families have paid a terrible price for that service. A study of these vets concluded that 40 percent had serious emotional difficulties such as alcohol or narcotics abuse and 75 percent complain of nightmares, problems maintaining relationships or jobs. 

Routine exposure to dioxin was more deadly than war itself and may have already claimed more American lives than the war. 

Mike Asman was eighteen when he enlisted in the marines in 1966. He was living in a small town in Texas, feeling restless, wanting to get way. He left Texas for basic training and was immediately sent to Danang. He was a weapons repairman who went out on patrols, sat inside fortified ―firebases‖, and generally tried to learn how not to get killed. 

On his first night in country he and his buddy from basic were in separate fox holes when several Vietnamese children approached selling cokes. The Marines overpaid in a gesture of generosity. One of the children, no more than eight years old, dropped a grenade in his buddy‘s foxhole and killed him. 

He rarely spoke of his experiences in Vietnam, but he did note that a lot of the people who got killed were the best people around him, death it seemed, did not play favorites. 

When Mike returned home after his tour in Vietnam he returned with a heroin habit and an inability to sleep. When family members entered a room where Mike was sleeping he would roll out of bed and reach for the .45 under the pillow that was no longer there. 

Occasional brushes with the law, marital trouble and an ongoing drug and alcohol problem followed him for the next 20 years. Mike eventually came to terms with the demons that haunted him from Vietnam, he beat his addictions and moved his family into a house in the country. 

Time, group therapy, and family helped Mike to turn his life around. 

About 5 years later Mike began to feel tired all the time. Mike Asman was told he had Non-Hodgkin‘s Lymphoma, due to an error reading an x-ray it had been found too late, and he had 6 months to live. 

Before he became too weak, Mike sold his house and all his belongings and moved his wife and five young children to Utah to be near his wife‘s parents for emotional support, then he prepared to die. 

In six months his 6‘2‖ frame had shrunk to a skeletal form and Mike‘s face was barely recognizable. He was being given morphine and oxygen around the clock. Mike died on November 11th, on his 51st birthday leaving a wife and 5 children. His name does not appear on the Vietnam Memorial, nor do the names of thousands of others. 

Shortly after his death the government program set up to compensate the veteran victims of Agent Orange related disease was shut down, and compensation was no longer available. 

Since most Agent Orange related disease takes 20-30 years to emerge, the vast majority of affected veterans were never compensated. 

DOW Chemical continues to sell 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D all over the world. Danang remains a heavily contaminated hot spot to this day.

Cold War 1945-1995  

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